About first results of tariff’s reform and town-planning reform

The preliminary results of tariff’s reform and town-planning reform are researched in the article from point of view of a re-distribution organizational economical power between organs of state power and organs of local government. During last seven years process of the re-distribution power between organs of state power and organs of local government in sphere of economical administration makes more active. Among main changes – cessation realization of delegating powers by organs of local government (narrowing of appropriate powers) in the sphere of building, tariff-formation, state registration of juridical persons and physical persons – owners, passing of these powers to organs of state power and in this time – delegation to executive organs of local councils powers for organization of doing of administrative services in appropriate territory including services in the sphere of permit system. The results of the re-distribution of organizational economical powers between the state and the local government in the sphere of building and tariff-formation can not be appreciated synonymously positively or negatively. Tariff’s reform is provoked reproofs in the community more than building’s reform. Building’s reform is appreciated considerably better by society. The made investigation is proving if strategic laws are passed compulsory previous consultations must be organized with the subjects of organizational economical powers, professional organizations in appropriate sphere, must be analyzed a practice of the appropriate work and it’s results in foreign countries and own history.

The preliminary results of tariff’s reform and town-planning reform are researched in the article from point of view of a re-distribution of organizational economical powers between organs of state power and organs of local government.

During last seven years process of the re-distribution power between organs of state power and organs of  local government in sphere of economical administration makes more active. Among main changes – cessation realization of delegating powers by organs of  local government (narrowing of appropriate powers) in the sphere of  building, tariff-formation, state registration of juridical persons and physical persons – owners, passing of these powers to organs of state power and in this time – delegation to executive organs of local councils powers for organization of doing of administrative services in appropriate territory including services in the sphere of permital system. These legal and administrative processes need serious investigations, appreciation from point of view of effect and expediency. Mamutov V.K., Scherbina V.S., Vikhrov O.P., Kravezh I.M., Dzhumageldieva H.D. and other scholarlies have investigated problems of organizational economical powers. But legal changes of the last years require new investigations, sociological scientific analysis and scientific analysis from the point of view of law science and economic science.

This is actually and usefully to analyze as far as administrative innovations in the sphere of the economy are excused, whether these changes are according with European experience of the government. It is necessary to decide if the appropriate legal transformations are large, whether they leaded to positive economic (social) effect, whether they are corresponding to European practice. The first is town-planning reform.

In accordance with the first editorial staff of The Law of Ukraine «About the local government in Ukraine» from 21 may 1997 year village councils, settlement councils, town councils were authorized to give permits for the building of the objects of the town-planning irrespective of the forms of property, to put into operation objects, to control the legislation during planning and building on appropriate territories. In 2008 year powers of the local government in the sphere of state architectural building control, giving permits for building’s works, putting into operation objects were passed to authorized organs of the state power – to The State Architectural Building Inspection of Ukraine and it’s territorial organs. In accordance with The Law of Ukraine «About regulation of the town-planning work» the organs of local government are authorized to plan built-up area, to participate in the putting into operation of town-planning objects, to keep a town-planning land-survey.

In the august 2013 year one of leaders of The State Architectural Building Inspection points out an essential increase quantity of permissions in this sphere (from 40 thousands permissions before and to 100 thousands permissions after passing The Law of Ukraine «About regulation of town-planning work») and increase quantity of objects which are put into operation. But results of sociological researches are not optimistic. An European Researching Association fixs that if this Law worked really we should feel this – cost of habitation should changes but this is not reality. They say that The Law really improved a procedure of receiving of permital documents on building: delay with mounting of documents reduces, quantity of people who enjoys quality of services by The State Architectural Building Inspection increased.

The changes in the volume of organizational economical powers of organs of  local government in the sphere of tariff-formation are too essential after 2010 year. In accordance with the actual editorial staff of The Law of Ukraine «About the local government in Ukraine» executive organs of  local councils had powers to regulate tariffs for absolute majority of communal services. Now executive organs of  local councils have powers to regulate tariffs for consumer’s, communal, transport’s and other services (besides tariffs for heat energy, centralization supply of the water, treatment and burial of consumer’s screenings which are regulated by National Commission that regulates in sphere of communal services). In accordance with The Law of Ukraine «About the National Commission of the regulation of communal services’ market of  Ukraine» from 9 July 2010 year powers to regulate tariffs for some communal services are the powers of organ of executive power the National Commission of the regulation of communal services’ market of Ukraine now. The powers of organs of local government in another spheres (a transport, a funeral work and others) have not been changing during long time.

The National Academy of State Management by the President of Ukraine did interrogation of regional state administrations and local government organs of all levels in the question of the volume of their powers. The majority of regional state administrations, regional councils gives propositions that direction by tariff-formation on the market of communal services must do in the state level. But small towns on the whole confirm that direction by tariff-formation on the market of communal services must do in the local level or in the state level with discount peculiarities of a region.

A sound investigation (in different positions) of tariff’s reform in a house communal sphere in 2012 year was run by Public organization «Resource Centre for associations of owners of many-flat’s houses». It’s results are next. The prices for communal services for majority of consumers increased from the beginning of tariff’s reform, the tariffs are not economically well-founded now.

The results of the re-distribution of organizational economical powers between the state and the local government in the sphere of building and tariff-formation can not be appreciated synonymously positively or negatively. Tariff’s reform is provoked reproofs in the community more than building’s reform. Building’s reform is appreciated considerably better by society. The made investigation is proving if strategic laws are passed compulsory previous consultations must be organized with the subjects of organizational economical powers, professional organizations in appropriate sphere, must be analyzed a practice of the appropriate work and it’s results in foreign countries and own history.

Reformation of personnel policy in the public service

The article deals with the problem of improving the human resources policy in the public service, outlines the main approaches to areas of reform, described the possibility of strengthening the human resource capacity of public service. As one of key measures is examined the input of profiles of professional competense, that will contain the clear list of requirements to level knowledge, abilities, to skills of civil servants, criteria of their evaluation will influence on the process of professional development of civil servants and play a qualificatory role during realization of competitive selection on positions state services. An author in detail is stopped on positions of the Government having a special purpose program of development of government service on a period 2016 to, sent to reformation of institute of government service, her modernisation in accordance with the standards of EU; updating of maintenance of activity, strengthening of institutional possibility of services of personnel of government and conditioning bodies for forming of skilled potential of imperious establishments, adjusting of the effective system of professionally-qualifying preparation and all-round development their employees.

Implementation of modern personnel policy in all spheres of social activity requires a complex effect on the system itself works with the staff – from the preparation and provision of professional education, quality selection and recruitment, adapting them to the office and professional development, and ending with the transfer of professional and life  experience to beginners.

No less important is the introduction of new Law Ukraine «On State Service», which focuses on the application of the competency approach to human resource management in public administration.

Program document for the reform of personnel policy in the civil service can be called a strategy adopted by state personnel policy for 2012 – 2020 was approved by the Conception of the development program of public service for the period until 2016 and developed by the State Program of the Civil Service until 2016.

Content analysis of tasks and activities of the State Target Program of the Civil Service until 2016 (then in text- the Program) to determine those accents that are the most important:

– implementation a mechanism, standards and procedures for the management of human resources in the civil service;

– increasing institutional capacity in the civil service.

On the one hand, improving instruments for managing human resources and introduce standards that will use similar tools to work with the staff at the new, higher-quality level; on the other hand – enhanced role and demands on the capacity of most service personnel actually carry out activities related with the functions human resource management, and the capacity of public service as an institution of public administration.

Implementation profiles of professional competence civil service is designed to improve the function of human resource management related to planning; involvement; selection; professional development; evaluating the performance of the staff. Profiles should use during the competition for vacant civil service performance appraisal activities and promotion of civil servants.

The program is planned to build a politically impartial civil service, so special attention will be paid to development of methods of detection of the political impartiality of public servants in the performance of official duties, including such forms of political activity as the use of official position for campaigning and combining civil service position with the position in the organization the preparation and conduct of the campaign, identification of the mechanism of civil servants, which, in particular, would ensure the political impartiality of the public service.

Much attention is given to measures to update the content of the services of personnel of state and local governments, strengthening their strategic role.

Separately Program discusses measures to ensure the services with highly qualified personnel; opportunities to optimize staffing levels according to age, category, specialty, level of professional competence; capacity to ensure the efficiency costs associated with salaries, promotion and provision of social guarantees for civil servants.

Events and tasks of the Program should create conditions for the formation of human resources public administration which is understood as the general concept that includes a set of abilities, hidden opportunities specialist, the disclosure of which gives him the opportunity to be realized in the professional field.

The basis for the stable existence of human resources is a core of skilled personnel of any organization. This “core” is the most stable of the group – those individuals who have extensive experience in the institution (organization), the most qualified employees, which corresponds to the level of their positions.

Under the civil servant adaptation to the profession meant a permanent process of mutual adaptation, adjustment of interests, expectations and requirements of the employee and the conditions of professional work in the civil service, resulting in the development and enrichment as a public servant and public service in general.

The «depression regions» are in coordinates of credible reforms

The questions related to so-called depressed of territories of Ukraine open up in the article. An origin and determination of concept «the depressedterritory», his interpretation are examined in the modern Ukrainian legislation, led reasons of appearance and description of the depressed territories in Ukraine. An author is determine an aim and list of tasks of public policy in relation to overcoming of depressed of territories. The special attention is accented on strategy of investment politics in the depressed regions, that must come true in acomplex with other crisis measures of general economic character. An author is ground expediency of distribution of regions after the level of depressed and determination on this basis of regional priorities of investing, stages of selection of investment resources. Taking into account the sharp requirement of big capital investments in the depressed regions, the necessity of radical improvement of investment climate, that requires the clear ground of aim  of bringing in of investments and creation of such economic mechanism that would balance the norms of incomes, is established, levels of risk, guarantee for bringing in of investments and provided if not rapid, then even permanent and steady improvement ofeconomic situation.

In Ukraine, the main law that defines the legal, economic and organizational principles of state regional policy to stimulate regional development and poverty depressed areas is the Law of Ukraine «About the promotion of regional development». According to the Law of state policy on promotion of regional development is primarily for backward regions, which are considered part of the region or (industrial or rural city of regional significance or more areas of regional significance), the level of which the indicators hereby, the lowest among the areas that type.

The government has decided to expand the group of territories that are recognized as depressed and giving them this status, August 8, 2012 The purpose of this paper is to bring Procedure for monitoring the socio-economic performance of regions, districts and cities of regional, republican, in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea for recognition of depressed areas, approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated March 2, 2010 № 235, in accordance with the Law of Ukraine «About amending the Law of Ukraine» On the promotion of regional development «on the expansion of areas that are recognized as depressed and giving them this status» which came into force on January 1, 2012.

Territory is given depressive status in order to create legal, economic and organizational basis for the adoption by state and local governments, special measures to encourage the development of such areas.

Recognized depressed industrial and rural areas and cities of regional importance, the corresponding figures of which correspond to both the criteria set out in part one of this article.

To overcome the depressed area central body of executive power on economic policy with other central executive bodies, relevant local authorities and local self-developed application. This program is approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

Determination of state support in the form of depressed areas equalization based on normative budgetary provision settlements.

The object of government support of depressed regions should be not local governments, and businesses should be people who are in the area.

Establishment of a special regime for investments in depressed regions mandates consideration of certain priority sectors (and even businesses), the characteristics of reproduction processes, willingness to upgrade production potential efficiency possible costs in the long-term development.

State investment policy in depressed regions should be conducted in conjunction with other anti-crisis measures of overall value (general improvement of the economic situation, the creation of stable conditions for the effective functioning of the market mechanism, providing conditions for the formation of progressive-industrial proportions). This will create conditions for the normal functioning the region’s economy in the future.

It is advisable to allocate wholly or partly depressed regions and carry with them a variety of public investment policy and draw up a register of such regions, which is periodically updated. Investment resources should be directed first of all at the development of depressed regions, which marked the revival of the relative investment motivations are sufficient manpower, relatively favorable political and environmental conditions. This will prevent wasting money by numerous objects that will enable them to quickly learn and ensure timely payback.

In Ukraine, where most of the regions can be seen as backward, especially important to find the optimal combination of national and regional interests. Giving budget support areas should be based on the priorities of securing and accelerating overall economic growth and the need for convergence of inter-regional differences in the conditions of the population.

In terms of restructuring of the Ukrainian economy pressing issue is the need for large investments. Activation of the investment process is critical to the successful continuation of the socio-economic transformation in Ukraine.

The best experience of introduction of innovations in local self-government

The article describes the best domestic innovation practices of innovation development of communitiesby local authorities in Ukraine, the ways to overcome defects in the formation of innovation coherent system in local self-government. In opinion of author, leading strategy of increase that envisages the use of home scientific and technical potential and bringing in of works of foreign scientists must become in innovative development of Ukraine. In the context of innovative development an important value has adjusting of collaboration of organs of local self-government with public. Among the most effective forms that for today are used in the Ukrainian cities, there is realization of the public listening, questioning of public opinion, bringing in of citizens to the process of making decision, realization of projects from the strategic planning of development of cities and decision of local problems. At the same time the necessity of making of strategy of transition of territorial communities is established to the innovative model of development, forming of the proper level of innovative culture of workers of organs of local self-government, generalization and general application in the regions of the turned out experience from overcoming of problems of development of territorial communities and decision of questions local self-government.

For today there are separate developments in the implementation of tasks related to issues of innovation in the field of public management of local government. Where the position of officials on implementing of public management innovations is active, there are advances in the above areas of activity.

Aim of research is determining the level of innovation in the national local government that provides analysis of the experience of innovations and proposals for overcoming shortcomings in the formation of a coherent system of innovation in local government.

World practice has accumulated three types of innovation strategies:

– The strategy of the transfer;

– The strategy of borrowing;

– Build strategy.

In the context of the activation of civil society in Ukraine burning issue today is the establishment of effective cooperation between government and society, the creation of effective mechanisms of this process.

The first city of Ukraine, which began to involve the public in decision-making were such as: Komsomolsk, Berdyansk, Cherkasy, Slavutich and others.

For today an important problem of urban communities is the presence of a large number of social problems that have accumulated in the community, a decision which is in the competence of local government, which, however, can not be resolved on their own community due to lack of budget. Therefore, to minimize the large number of social issues, the local government has to look for new resources. One of these tools can be a mechanism of social partnership, when solving local social problems involved in local community organizations with their own resources, and the local government provides them with funding from the local budget.

In 2003, with financial support from the Ministry of International Development (DFID) began operations program «Democratizing of Ukraine: program of small Projects». Although the program is implemented only in two areas – the ten communities of Lviv and Donetsk region – a real step towards the democratization of Ukraine.

In 1998, with the support of the International Foundation for Social Adaptation and the Association of Business Incubators and Innovation Centers in Poland was established Ukrainian Association of Business Incubators and Innovation Centers that contribute to the practical implementation of national, regional, local and international programs aimed at business development by promoting and support the activities of business incubators, technology parks etc.

In 2002, Ukraine adopted the Law of Ukraine «On innovation activity» that allow and support to create business incubators as most state and local governments. The logical continuation of the program was the creation of three technology parks, «Semiconductor Technologies and Materials, Optoelectronics and sensor technology» (Kyiv); «Institute for Single Crystals» (Kharkiv); «Institute of Electric of Paton» (Kyiv).

To support local government in Ukraine was established the Foundation for Local Self-Government of Ukraine that its status is central to scientific methods, consulting and coordinating agency. In 2003, it introduced the All-Ukrainian competition of projects and programs of local government. At present municipal reform advocates fund innovative direction associated with the formation of viable and self-sufficient local communities in the context of problem solving resources. The main purpose of it activity in this direction is to determine the sources and mechanisms to search using basic and advanced resources of local and regional development.

Most successful form of the Fund became an annual nationwide municipal hearing. A positive example is the collaboration of the Foundation and the Swiss-Ukrainian project “Decentralization Support in Ukraine» DESPRO to implement as part of the All-Ukrainian contest of projects and programs of local government project aimed at the development of communities.

Ukraine has a UNDP «Local Development CBA». This project works with 1,000 communities for sustainable rural development.

Equally important, today is the creation of condominium associations (condominiums). Practice has proved the effectiveness of the condominiums in cities and towns of Ukraine and others.

The problem of «burnout» head, and subordination to the civil service, service in local government

Work is sanctified to the problem of the «professional burning» down of leader and inferiors in the system of government service, service in the organs of local self-government. Specific of professional «civil servant» is examined, as one of factors of appearance and development of syndrome of the «professional burning» down. Psychological features, reasons of origin of problem of the «professional burning», down psychological features, reasons of origin of problem of the «professional burning» down and certain groups of workers most apt to the professional burning down, are considered. The conducted comparatived escription of symptoms and stages of syndrome of the «professional burning» down, and also aspects of prophylaxis and overcoming of this problem, is in the system of government service, service in the organs of local self-government. In opinion of author, the most effective measures are studies of civil servants to effective styles of communications, decision of conflict situations; introduction of training and antistress programs, oriented to the personality correction of self-appraisal, forming of motivation to personality and professional development, emotional firmness, confidence and psychical-physical harmony by the capture of self-regulation and planning of professional career methods.

The work is devoted to the problem of «burnout» leaders and subordinates in the civil service, service in local government.

Increasing the intensity of life, political, economic and social changes taking place in Ukraine today, the constant growth of information that is necessary to operate, impose civil servants new, more complex requirements, of course, affect the psychological health of employees rise to emotional stress, a significant amount of professional stress. One of the most difficult long-term effects of occupational stress is a syndrome of «burnout».

Purpose of work is study the nature Syndrome «burnout» and determining the characteristics of display to the fulfillment of their professional duties officers in the civil service and local government.

Specificity of civil servants is different in that they are a large number of situations with high emotional saturation and cognitive complexity of interpersonal communication, and it requires them to significantly contribute to establishing trusting relationships and the ability to manage the emotional stress of business communication.

Today the «burnout syndrome» is seen as a long-term stress response that occurs as a result of action on human chronic occupational stress medium intensity. In this regard, we consider the burnout syndrome as «professional burnout», which potentiates the deformation of the individual professional.

Burnout syndrome includes three main components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (cynicism) and the reduction of professional achievement.

The causes of the problem of «burnout» is often due to the fact that the profession suddenly becomes an obstacle to the development of human personality and to the fact that the person poses an inappropriate purpose. The reason may be that the activity becomes difficult or even meaningless or that the employee hated the actual process works.

Preventing and addressing the problem of «burnout» in the civil service, service in local government. Prevention strategies and overcome the problem of «professional burnout» in the civil service, service in local government should provide a system of measures for the training of civil servants effective communication styles, conflict resolution (which can be socio-psychological training, business games, etc.); organization of training courses that promote self-motivation, personal and professional development of civil servants; implementation of anti-stress programs with support groups that focus on personal adjustment self-esteem, confidence, social boldness, emotional stability and harmony by mastering psycho-physical means of self-regulation and planning professional careers.

 One of the main specific features of life manager and subordinates is the diversity and complexity of the tasks they solve. The significance of the activities and experiences of the performers for the outcome of the task intensity is determined operating conditions. Extreme conditions and requirements imposed management activities to the emotional and volitional qualities and other civil servants, their individual social and psychological characteristics determine the probability of crisis and stress in life.

The development of «burnout» is always associated with the presence of intense psychological and emotional activities: intensive communication, accompanied by emotions, to receive and process large amounts of information, making responsible decisions.

Structure of burnout syndrome among civil servants syndrome similar to that of members of other professions. For civil servants, as well as for members of other professions, the most important characteristics is the health (physical and mental), professionalism and competence. A necessary condition for the development of a healthy person is the economic base, political and psychological sense of stability in the country. The study of the problem of «burnout» leaders and subordinates in the civil service, service in local government, which occurs as a result of stress and emotional burden of civil servants, development of methodological approaches to its prevention, and generally creating the appropriate conditions of civil servants will enhance professional level of public service as a whole, to bring it to the standards of the European Union, will enable Ukraine to take another step towards a strong, competitive world power.

It should be noted that the stress-free living thing just dies, but too often stay in stressful situations varying degrees of «toxic» to the human psyche. So each of us needs to determine for themselves and try to establish the level of tension that is necessary for enabling our existence.

Influence public and scientists on the formation of public policy national memory (for example, the signing of the Presidential Decree «On measures in connection with the 70th anniversary of the tragedy Koryukovskaya»)

Analyzes the impact of society and scientists on the formation of public policy of National Remembrance example signing of the Presidential Decree «About events on the 70-th anniversary of Koryukovskaya tragedy» from September 22, 2011 № 925. Shows an example of a successful involvement in the sphere of public policy the national memory of the biggest in the history Second World War in Europe, the tragedy of the brutal destruction by the Nazi punishers in March 1943 of Koryukovka town with all civilians – about 7,000 people. Earlier in the country and the world this crime against humanity was virtually unknown. In research briefly on the basis of the known documents and certificates, remembrances of habitants of small town reasons are reflected, organizers and performers of this nazicrime against citizenry, progress and results of Koryukovskaya tragedy. Politics of memory is also considered in relation to the victims of this tragedy from post-war time till 2010, which was conducted by local-authority on initiative of society of city and district.

The influence of the public and scientists in public policy national memory as an example of Presidential Decree Ukraine «On measures in connection with the 70th anniversary of the tragedy Koryukovskaya» of 22 September 2011, № 925, and the «Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on the commemoration of the victims of the tragedy Koryukivka during World War II» from October 21, 2011 № 3965-VI. Shown success story involving public policy of National Remembrance largest in the history of World War II in Europe tragedy of extermination by Nazi Punishers 1-2, March 9, 1943 the district center Koryukivka Chernihiv Oblast of Ukraine together with general population – about 7000 people. In the article briefly based on known documents and testimonies, memories of residents of the town highlighted reason, the organizers and executors of the Nazi crimes against the civilian population, progress and results Koryukivka tragedy. Displaying politics of memory on the victims of the tragedy of the postwar period up to 2010, carried out by local authorities on the initiative of the community of the city and region. The author analyzes the results of studies about Koryukivka tragedy. The consequences Nazi crimes: killing about 7 thousand people. However, the actual number of deaths is estimated to researchers and local authorities, is greater than the established commission. Established in 1893 the victim, specifies the persons who made the decision to destroy this town.

In Soviet period and the first nineteen years of independent Ukraine Koryukivka memory of tragedy and their victims dignity preserved urban and regional public support of local authorities. Every year without approval and permit from the regional and central authorities in town national flags are hung with mourning ribbons, held events commemorating the victims of Nazi crimes.

This work has intensified since 2010. In December 2010, the Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, Chernihiv Regional State Administration and Koryukivka Historical Museum published a collection of documents and materials «Koryukivka, 1943: a crime against humanity». In the book first time was published conclusion that the punitive destruction Koryukivka with the civilian population was the largest such crimes in World War II in Europe (1939-1945). Starting from January 2011 the regional authorities, in cooperation with public and veterans’ organizations Kyiv, Chernihiv, Koryukivka, Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, academics and journalists began a powerful information and educational campaign to inform the higher authorities and the public of the about Koryukivka tragedy.

September 22, 2011 the President of Ukraine signed a decree following the consolidated public order and public witnesses of the tragedy, supported personally top officials of central and local executive bodies, deputies of Ukraine and local governments. Decree predicted structures in Koryukivka memorial complex residents of settlements Ukraine destroyed the Nazi occupiers; conduct the research work of scientific forum on the subject, a documentary, edition of the scientific documentary and popular science literature; held in schools and other educational institutions, cultural institutions, military units, lessons memory, lectures, discussions and round tables devoted to the tragic events of March 1943 in Koryukivka; Preparation of thematic television and radio, holding mourning activities for the 70th anniversary of the tragedy Koryukivka at the state level to inform the international community about the tragic events of March 1943 in Koryukivka Chernihiv region.

The scientists found that the Nazi invaders destroyed the 670 settlements with 50828 persons civilians in 16 regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. They found that the greatest tragedy was Koryukivka during the Second World War in Europe, the crime of destruction of settlements with the civilian population. That is why the Decree of the President of Ukraine made a decision to create a memorial complex to residents of settlements Ukraine destroyed by the Nazi occupiers of museum exhibitions all burned towns and villages of Ukraine. Earlier in the country and the world this crime against humanity was virtually unknown. Continue and research, which is a significant contribution to the creation of the memorial complex.

Example of self-development – development of the region

In the article investigated problems of development of local self-government in Ukraine, analyzed the features of local self-government in Nizhyn rayon. Attention applies on activity of the Nizhyn district soviet that presents common interests of territorial communities of district. We are talking about the systematic organizationally-methodical, legal, informative providing of councils and support of close connection with councils of lower level. The collaboration of public and local self-government that consists in the general planning of monthly measures in a district and their general realization authorities is covered. An important place in-process district soviet organization of studies, in-plant training of deputies and public servants of local self-government occupies. An other from the methods of effective decision of problems of local communities there is a collaboration with labour collectives, public organizations, cells of political parties and services. It is marked on the necessity of support of territorial communities for the decision of major necessities of their development by self-organization, development of their potential and implementation of small on a volume public initiatives in different sphere.

The article highlights the problems of local government in Ukraine, analyzes the features of local government in Nizhyn area.

Today the socio-economic development of society requires the active participation not only of the government but also of the population directly, that communities and local governments. The Alliance principles of centralization and decentralization in the exercise of governmental power is manifested in the fact that with the central authorities of the State retains the right protection and maintenance of general public interests, and the local authorities decide whether regional and local levels, provide realization of general government programs. It is known that, regional development ensures the development of the whole country.

At the present stage of development of all branches of government question the need to improve the theory and practice of modern nation-caused changes in the political system of society, administrative-territorial, regional reforms, the introduction of constructive social partnership between the center and territories.

Law of Ukraine «About Local Self-Government in Ukraine» provides a number of state delegation of authority to the executive bodies of village, town and city councils are financially not backed. The redistribution of power and resources from the public authorities to local authorities and, on the basis produced standards, through realization relevant services needs of citizens – that’s the first problem facing the state. Expect from local government responsibility possible only threw transferring powers and resources.

Territorial structure of Nijinsky area was laid January 31, 1923, when it was created. Activity of Nizhyn District Council aims to restore the leading role of local government. According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine «About Local Self-Government in Ukraine» district council represents the common interests of local communities and villages, 71 villages in the district are subject to the district, town and 29 village councils. In the area systematically carried out organizational and methodological, legal, information boards and maintained close contact with lower-level councils.

District Council has delegated district state administration authority provided by law. Therefore, the area is a collaboration of state and local governments. This joint planning of monthly activities in the area and share their conduct, on certain issues are taken jointly manage the head of the district council and the head of the district administration, taking part in mass events in the district area.

One way to effectively address the problems of local communities are working with labor groups, community organizations, centers of political movements. Important place in the District Council takes educational trainings, training of deputies and local government officials. In order to ensure transparency in the work of local councils and their bodies District Council of Nizhyn one of the first established the official website.

Actively involved in issues of local life work teams of operating farms, schools. It participated in the landscaping and general public events, providing sponsorship, if necessary, provide transport issues in burial and others.

Through dialogue between the public, encouraging social activity, determination of collective vision and implement joint initiatives on community development, guided our cooperation.

The aim is to support local communities to address critical needs of their development through self-organization, capacity building, and implementation of small-scale community initiatives in different areas.

Today the Ukrainian government and civil society need a fundamentally new quality of public governance: local government filling a real sense, the effective regulation of the territorial communities and local government. It is essential to the introduction of state regulation mechanism of intergovernmental relations such practical measures to help solve the problems of sustainable and equitable local budgets provide financial resources to achieve efficiency in the implementation of development expenditures and help increase their volumes.

Activity of District Council of Nizhyn aims to restore the leading role of local government. This is achieved by performing the strategic objectives of local government.

Tourism development – an important component of development Strategy of Chernihiv in the 2007 – 2015 years

In the article held a brief analysis of the mechanisms of State management of tourism, cooperation in the field of local self-government bodies, economic entities and public foundations. The main accent is made on the regional aspect of these issues. Filed a brief historical reference about Chernihiv, outstanding architectural monuments, famous figures in the history of Ukraine, who lived and worked in the city. Made the analysis of the development strategy of the city during 2007 – 2015, «The detailed plan of the central part of the city» and «The scheme of perspective development of tourism in the city». Given the analysis to the implementation of the program of development tourist industry and the international relations of Chernihiv and promoting investment during 2013 – 2014. Special emphasis is made on information and image section. The article describes information about the influence of tourism industry on the status of the socio-economic development of the city, the dynamics of revenue touristic tax to the city budget. One of the main parts of the article is the definition of ways of developing touristic infrastructure, list of investment-attractive projects.

This article analyzes the mechanisms of governance in tourism, cooperation in the field of local government, business entities and public foundations. Chernihiv – one of the oldest cities in Europe. According to archaeological studies, it began formation about 1,300 years ago, at the dawn of the East Slavic state. The city with its architectural – archaeological sites included in the preliminary list of World Heritage Sites.

Chernihiv has an advantageous geographical location: proximity to the capital of Ukraine, the border regions of Russia and Belarus, the presence of international transport corridors, stunning natural landscapes.

An important document regulating the development of Chernihiv, development areas is a General Plan. Main planning idea of this paper is to preserve the dominant historical and architectural complex in the city, its unique panoramas and natural environment. These approaches are the basis for approval, «A detailed plan for the center of Chernihiv» and «Schemes perspective development of city tourism». Assumed conversion of tourism in one of the most profitable sectors of the city economy. During 2025 the annual number of tourists is up to 600 thousand people.

The development of the tourism industry has become one of the priorities of the Strategy of Chernihiv in 2007 – 2015, which was approved by the City Council on December 21, 2007 Twenty-third session of the fifth convocation.

According to the development strategy of Chernihiv over 2007 – 2015 that was adopted two years later application. November 30, 2012 27 session Chernihiv City Council adopted the Sixth Convocation Program tourism development and international relations Chernihiv and investment promotion for 2013 – 2014.

Continues constant dialogue between the government, business, public foundations for the development of the tourism industry of the city, establishing effective cooperation mechanisms. In line with the City Council on February 20, 2012 № 40 was formed interdepartmental City Tourism Council as an advisory body.

Much attention is paid to the improvement of information and advertising city. Annually produced trilingual Events Chernihiv.

Provided the urban tourist multilingual website www.chernihiv tourist.com.ua. There were 60 thousand visits from 82 countries.

Tourism potential of the city ever presented at exhibitions, tour shops.

The city installed 43 bilingual signs to the main tourist sites. Nowadays implemented a joint project between business and government on the deployment of elements of tourist navigation (street signs, information boards, a plan – content – a total of 27 units.). This navigation is aimed primarily at tourists, pedestrians. Work has begun to create a tourist navigation including information stands on street names in bus stop complexes. It should be noted that in the tourist navigation, information and imaging products always an element of branding – Chernihiv tangle slogan «Chernihiv – a city of legends» continues working Tourist Information Centre. Quantitative analysis of applications shows the growing interest of potential tourists to the city. Also carried out work on the development of priority Chernihiv types of tourism: event (festival), tours, agriculture, ecology and others.

New information and image events was the opening of the tourist season. For two days, the city hosts a series of events: the contest «Miss Tourism Chernihiv»; Tourism Trade and village craftsmen; folklore and historical performance on the Wall; Gastronomic Festival. The guests of the event were members of the press tour for national and regional media – more than 30 journalists, tourist publications, rating television, the Internet – resources.

Very promising for the city Chernihiv is a pilgrimage tourism development that has deep historical roots and traditions. Anthony Cave, Saviour Cathedral, the relics of St. Theodosius, the sacred lake has traditionally attracted many pilgrims to the town.

During 2012 – 2013 the project provided for opening free WiFi zones. Free Internet access is already there and throughout the downtown area, the Central Park of Culture and Rest, on the shaft. There are web cameras that allow for on-line broadcast of events from the Red Square, the central park of culture and recreation area near Megacenter.

In cooperation with the Institute of History, Ethnology and Law A. Lazarevsky CHNPU and private guides launched a new project «Freetours».

The number of tourists visiting the city and therefore revenue to the city budget. Thus, in 2011 the tourist tax is 79 thousand grivnas, In 2012, 110 thousand grivnas, for 7 months 2013 69 thousand grivnas, up 29% compared with the same period last year. According to this index among cities in our category, we ranked fourth, ahead of us, Chernivtsi, Ivano-Frankivsk and Poltava. The estimated cost of the scheme for tourism development of the city, construction of the tourism industry by 2025 will amount to around 1.5 billion grivnas. The city government proposed for the development of numerous attractive investment area.

Based on the foregoing, it should be noted that the tourism component of the Strategy of Chernihiv over 2007 – 2015 is an important factor for sustainable socio – economic development of the city, filling the budget, creating new jobs places.

Local government: historical aspects and general characteristics

In this article we try to make the fundamental analysis of some aspects of process of creation and evolutions of local governments in Ukraine. For our analysis we take the period during formation of independent Ukraine and till today.We try to investigated the general legal characteristic of local governments in Ukraine.We defined the public value of local government. Also we defined the concept of local government and its essence. We defined and analyzed some aspects of interaction of local governments with city state administrations which function in the same territory of Ukraine. For today a basic problem is remained by the removal of dubbing of plenary powers of local state administrations and organs of local self-government. For this purpose necessary establishment of clear tasks, limits of competense and responsibility of every level of power, effective public or judicial inspection, observance of principles of autonomy is in realization of exceptional authority by every level of public power and subsidiarity.

New history of local government in independent Ukraine begins only after the adoption of December 7, 1990 the Law of Ukraine «About Local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Ukrainian SSR and the local government», which defined the concept of local self-government and territorial basis of local government.

With the adoption of March 5, 1992 the Law of Ukraine «About Representative of the President of Ukraine» for the first time in the political and legal practice of independent Ukraine was approved by the institution of local government administrations.

The next step in the establishment of local self-government in Ukraine was the adoption of 26 March 1992 the new Law of Ukraine «On local councils of deputies and local and regional self-government». Territorial basis of local self-defined village council, village, city, and territorial basis of regional government – district, region.

However, the lack of conceptual policy in local administrations provoked opposition deputies of local councils. Consequence of its decision was the adoption of the Law of Ukraine on February 3, 1994 «About the formation of local government and self-government». Act provided that after the election of deputies, heads of village, town, city, district and regional councils and executive bodies forming Soviets repealed the Law of Ukraine «About Representative of the President of Ukraine». Local authorities in Ukraine are: village, town city, district and regional council. They are given their own jurisdiction within which operate independently. Regional, Kyiv and Sevastopol city council simultaneously performing functions of public authorities. The functions of these councils as organs of state power are determined by a separate law. Executive power is exercised at the local level executive committee and head of the respective councils.

Recovery of local administrations occurred after the conclusion of the Constitutional Agreement between the Parliament and the President of Ukraine Ukraine June 8, 1995 «About the basic principles of operation of state power and local self-government in Ukraine for the period until the adoption of the new Constitution of Ukraine».

The Constitution of Ukraine in 1996 cemented two system of local authorities: local administrations that are relevant executive authorities and local self-government as a public power communities.

With the adoption of the Constitution of Ukraine in 1996 for the first time of the latest local government gained constitutional status and was one of the foundations of the constitutional order in Ukraine.

November 6, 1996 in Strasbourg was signed on behalf of Ukraine the European Charter of Local Self-Government (ratified by Ukraine on 15 July 1997). Thus was laid the legislative foundation for the development of local self-government in Ukraine under the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the Constitution of Ukraine.

May 21, 1997 adopted the Law of Ukraine «About Local Self-Government in Ukraine», which states that the local government in Ukraine – is guaranteed by state law and the actual ability of the territorial community – residents of a village or a voluntary association of village community residents more villages, towns, cities – their own or under the responsibility of authorities and local government officials to address issues of local importance within the Constitution and laws of Ukraine.

Imperfection of the legal framework of local state administrations and local authorities has resulted in the current development state to the fact that, firstly, the local authorities (Administration) carry no inherent powers of self-government (which by its nature is primarily aimed at implementing the interests of the communities), and secondly – the executive body of local government exercising delegated most of the (state) authority than their own self.

The problem of legal regulation of local organizations administrations for a long time could not find its optimal solution. Evidence of this was quite a long process of adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Local State Administrations», which began with the adoption of the Constitution of Ukraine.