Image of official of Russian Empire local control in second half of XIXth century (Based on Materials of «Russkiy Vestnik» («Russian Herald»)

The article emphasizes most distinctive features and problems of bureaucratic corps of Russian empire local control on the basis of analysis of popular magazine «Russkiy Vestnik» («Russian Herald») releases during 1856 – 1890. It is explained that most of «Russkiy Vestnik» reporters (among them scientists, executive system officials, self-governing institutions officials and literari) addressed issues of officials’ educational, moral and cultural level, material maintenance, bribes, attitude toward official duties and interrelations within bureaucratic corporation. At the same time there were issues concerning local control system functioning and level of Russian society sense of justice. A discussion on the pages of popular and mass magazine was the extraordinarily important sign of development of civil society an induced governmental circles to the decision of problems of control system. Through a publicism to the actived iscussion the representatives of public were brought over, due to what the dialogue of power and society came true.

The figure of official of local government of the Russian Empire in the second half of nineteenth century. traditionally attracted considerable interest from the public. However in the second half of the nineteenth century this problem became the subject of active discussion, which is associated with a process of broad public discourse and new tendencies in Russian literature and publicism.

Research on public perception of identity of the official of local government can be achieved by analyzing of periodical publications. One of the most successful source in this plan is the magazine «Russian Vestnik», in which publicistic materials were combined with artistic works. This contributed to the popularity of magazine, periodicity (1856-1860 – twice a month, 1861-1906 – once a month) and personality of editor M.N. Katkov. This influential publicist and literary critic headed the editorial office of the magazine from 1856 to 1887. The latter factor was determinative for substantial evolution of general tonality of the magazine publications – from the liberal end of 1850 to strictly conservative in further period that coincided with the worldview transformation of M. N. Katkov.

Problems of Russian officials in the pages of magazine were raised by specialists of rights (O. Gradovsky, A. Polyumbetskyy, S. Barshev, M. Zarudnyi etc.), officials-practician (S. Hromeka, W. Bezobrazov, A. Fet, S. Slavutynskyi, B. Hotyaintsov etc.), writers (M. Saltykov-Shchedrin, A. Afanasiev-Chuzhbynskyy etc.) and anonymous authors («N»; «DV», «PB», «D. D»), social and professional identity of which is difficult to establish.

Lawyers and officials mainly focused on the problems of local government, only occasionally referring to the personality of official. Literary men demonstrated quite vibrant and emotive images. In the works of Alexander Afanasyev-Chuzhbynsky, M. Saltykov-Shchedrin figures of officials were submitted at various levels through the prism of their career, material security and personal life. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin paid attention on strict subordination within the bureaucratic corporation practice of contemptuous attitude of provincial officials to their colleagues of district level and meagre salaries of minor officials, which explains their dissatisfaction with the service.

The common thread in the works of M. Saltykov-Shchedrin is the problem of bribes. According to him the worst is the “moral bribe” – a service for which the official has to pay: small, but persistent signs of attention, flattery, formal dinners and more. The writer believed that bribe was a feature of provincial officials.

Voluminous layer of criticism and reflections concerns functionary of police department. In the works of publicist and police officer S.S. Hromeka were analyzed the problem of morality of functionaries, legal conscience of society, the impact of public opinion on the activities of functionaries. Analyzing the problem of police in Russia he drew attention not only to the shortcomings of the personal staff of functionaries but also the lack in Russian society of respect for laws, for personality and respect for people engaged in legal proceedings or protect the public peace. Instead of laws and personality in Russia canons of fashion, etiquette and uniforms were more respected. That is why functionaries no matter how tried to be moral, would still have to please rich and noble, humiliating themselves, but gradually moving up the career ladder. Other difficulties in the work of police S.S. Hromeka called excessive paperwork. For example mayor whose powers are concerned almost all life issues at the town, every step had to reflect on paper. In this context author considered ideal London police, which engaged in purely police matters.

Also contributors of journal discussed issues of total dependence of functionaries from imperfect legislation (A. Fet « Echo of rural judge ») and their excessive service load. Publicist V.P. Bezobrazov actualized issues of trust to functionary, stressing that almost all functionaries of local government have long been a favourite subject of Russian satire. On the contrary he highly valued Institute of world mediators where, according to him, came the best people that are really trying to improve situation.

Thus, the analysis of publications of «Russian Vestnik» for the period of 1856 – 1900 has allowed to distinguish some basic aspects concerning functionaries of local government. This question about their educational, moral and cultural level, the problem of material security, the problem of bribes, the issue of compliance of occupied positions and attitude of functionaries to fulfilment of their duties. Inextricably associated with this and more general problems concerning legal maintenance and functioning of local government and the level of legal conscience in Russian society. Such a discussion on the pages of popular and mass magazine was extremely important feature of development of civil society and encouraged government surrounding to solve problems of management system. Also because of publicism to active discussion were involved representatives of the public, thus carried out dialogue of authority and society.

Chernihiv fortres in the «Register of state fortresses of the Russian Empire» (1724 – 1799)

The article deals with the history of Chernihiv fortress of 1724 to1799. During this period it was a «Register of public fortresses of the Russian Empire». The final stageis characterized by the existence of Chernihiv fortress of great transformation sand reconstruction sthat are causing changes in the martial art of the eighteenth century. Archaic vestiges were liquidated as towers, it is built four valuable and two small bastions that covered large bastions. The defensive capacity of fortress rose considerably, it had begun to answer the requirements of military art of ХVIIIth century. However character of the carried out works and unrealization of part of the pre-arranged alterations testified to the gradual leveling of role of the Chernihiv fortress as a city formative factor. These processes are the cities of middle brightly illustrated on plans the second half of ХVІІІth century. If plans of 1730 – 1750th years consisted of aim of reconstruction of strengthening of fortress, then in 1760 – 1790th years in most they were taken off already for civilly-economic necessities (planning of municipal quarters, gasket of new streets and others like that). Chernihiv gradually transformed from a city-fortress on an ordinary city in a depthempires, and his habitants – from warriors on peaceful city-dwellers. In 1799 the fort was derived from the «Register», and during the early nineteenth century its fortifications were dismantled.

In the development of Chernihiv its fortress played a major role from all city forming institutions. Since ancient times, Detinets was the main fortified part of the city, where in the case of military danger, local citizens took cover.

At the time of entry of Chernigov to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Muscovia into the Old Detinets could accommodate almost all the urban population and the Upper Castle played the role of the citadel. By Polish domination late in late 1620s renewed fortifications of Detinets, that since more often called a fortress. By Hetmanate Chernihiv fortress has undergone radical rearrangements and become more adaptable for that time military requirements.

The unsatisfactory state of the fortifications of Chernihiv fortress at the beginning of  XVIII century led to its inclusion in the «State of government fortresses of Russian Empire» in 1724. Restoration of fortress tasked to engineer Adrian Debrynyi, who from 1730’s supervised  repairing and building of fortresses in the Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire.

  1. Debrynyi made the plan of Chernihiv and Chernihiv fortress. Instead towers, at the entrance to the castle, were full pentagonal bastions located in front of Lyubetska and Pogorila gates. The third bastion was in the north-eastern part of the fortress, somewhat below the main defenses. It also defended the bridge over the river Stryzhen that was just near it. Besides three great classical bastion in fortress were built two small pentagonal projections for covering the most important strategic places and reinforce defensive bastion of the water gate in the middle of the seventeenth century . Named later plans «small bastions», they created a great flanking cover not only the Water bastion, but generally east side Castles. Opposite Catherine’s Church was built another full bastion. It was called Catherine and covered castle from the south-west side.

War with Ottoman Empire, which began in 1735, has prompted Military Collegium an order for urgent measures to repair the fortresses in the Hetmanate. However, from 1737 to the end of the war in 1739 on defensive measures in Chernihiv nothing was known , and after the war urgent need for them at all anymore. The features and constructive elements of Chernihiv fortress late 30’s – early 40’s eighteenth century. were reflected in the plan drawn up in 1740 by engineer Daniel de Bosquets.

Around the perimeter of the fortress vanished wooden tower, in an amount of four units survived only in the corners of the Upper Castle. Between Lyubetska and Pogorila the gates came Redan (open field fortifications in a notch in the wall), protecting both travel bastions.

In 1750 on the territory of Chernihiv fortress there was a great fire, which destroyed nearly all the buildings and damaged fortifications. Changes in the internal space fortress after recovery clearly shown on the plan in 1757 On the north side of the bastion was built a full earthen breastworks; The upper castle also had a new bastion finally disappeared wooden tower, replaced by open military sites. From that time until the liquidation of the fortress in 1799 radical changes and renovations in its territory was not happened.

Thus, from 1724 to 1799 Chernihiv fortress has undergone significant renovations and modernizations, was more suited for conducting contemporary artillery battle. Archaic remnants was gone in the form of towers, there were four full and two small bastions, covering large bastions. These processes were clearly illustrated on the plans of the city middle – second half of the eighteenth century.

If the plans of the 1730’s – 1750’s evolved for reconstruction fortress, then in 1760 – 1790’s most of them already starred for civil and economic needs. On them was the main focus on the planning of urban areas, construction of new streets, etc. Chernihiv gradually transformed from a fortified city to a normal city in the province of the empire and its inhabitants – with soldiers to civilians. All this could not affect the status of defenses, which gradually fell into decay, and only prevented the development of Chernihiv.

Chernihiv fortress eliminated in 1799, and between 1800 and 1803 in place of former fortifications established Boulevard. However, immediately wipe out all traces of the centuries-old defense construction in Chernihiv Detinets failed. Works to eliminate ramparts were also conducted in 1826, but they failed to fully complete the task remains of defensive structures of the city visible in the photos of the nineteenth century.

History of development of local government Territorial community in Semenivka Chernihiv region

The history and the role of the local bodies in the society’s life from ancient times to present has been considered in the article. The example is a territorial community of Semenivka town, Semenivka district, Chernigiv region. A long history of the development of Semenivka from settlement in times of Mezin site to hamlet, country, village, urban village, suburb, small town, town; the influence of the changing status of the the settlement on its development is shown in this article. The role of Semenivka as a primary-territorial centre of adjacent territories  Semenivka volost, settlement’s and city’s councils, Semenovka district is explored. Materials and facts given in the article will be interesting to historians, regional ethnographers, specialists of local government and state structure. Students and different kinds of readers especially on the eve of administrative- territorial reform in Ukraine Taking into consideration the border location of Semenivka the article can be interesting for inhabitants of Russia and Belorussia.

The article reviews the history and role of local government in society on the example of the local community of Semenivka district, Chernihiv region. Clearly defined priorities of regional policy according to the «European Charter of Local Self-Government» and Article 2 of the Law of Ukraine «About Local Self-Government in Ukraine» – the reform of local government.

The author traces the development of local self-government, evolution from the earliest times to the present. The first forms of population organizations in Semenivka district associated with the existence of human settlement here (stops) since the late Stone Age, in which the basic unit of social organization of generic and tribal communities has become doubles family. The tribal community was built on a collectivist terms as determined Traditions and legal status of each member of the family and the community. At the head of each tribal community was aware of: elders, leaders. Several tribal communities formed a tribe that was headed by the Council, and several tribes formed a union. To guide the community, clan, tribe, tribal association in general meeting the relevant group of people elected leadership among the healthiest physically, wealthy and influential members of the team – it was the leadership of the local government of the time – in accordance with Council community, clan, tribe, at ‘tribal connections.

Further process of improvement forms of human society has created the preconditions for the establishment of a tribal organization model of human existence in the form of the state. The following illustrates the long history of Semenivka as a settlement of the Early Slavs and Kyiv Rus, the farm, «dyeryevnya», villages, settlements, towns of Hetman times and the imperial period, townships, cities and the impact of changing the status of the settlement on its development in the Soviet and the modern period. Also disclosed Semenivka role as the primary territorial-administrative center of the surrounding area – Semenivka parish, town and city councils, Semenovsky district.

Further development of local government in the town territory Semenivka and Semenivka area associated with the proclamation of independence in 1991, Ukraine, the 22-year period of independence of the Ukrainian state.

Local governments of Semenivka territorial community is Semenivka Town Council. Over 22 years of Independence Ukraine exhausted five convocations of the City Council, is working the sixth convocation. The composition of the City Council, as part of a local government include: mayor, 30 members of the city council, the executive committee of 12 members, 15 full-time employees of the City Council.

According to the Law of Ukraine «About Local Self-Government in Ukraine» Town Council executes 55 different functions and powers as their own and delegated power. Semenivka Town Council, as the local government territorial communities, with the support of countrymen, in close cooperation with the district and regional executive and representative government, directs its efforts to resolve the problems that bother Semenivka, holds a steady job to ensure the normal life of the town , its development, protection of residents and village Kuti Drugi.

So, given the history and role of local government in society as an example Semenivka territorial community Semenov district, Chernihiv region, we can conclude – Local Government in Ukraine and in Semenivka including a long history. We have experience in its traditional form in the earliest times and days of Kyiv Rus, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ukrainian Cossack State, Zemsky government of the Russian Empire, Soviet-era and two decades of an independent Ukrainian state.

Long as there human society, there are so many local governments – common solution by people who live in one area of their common problems. With the development of human society has evolved and local government, its form and performance. Local interests can not be considered without a close relationship with the interests of national, and the local government in all historical times closely intertwined with the activities of public authorities.

The current state of local government in Ukraine and the prospects for its development based on the experience of past eras, accumulated over centuries-old tradition of self-Ukrainian history, taking into account the best international practices. In view of all this should be the development of local government in the further development of Ukraine’s statehood.