Family contribution of Rozumovskyi in cultural development in Ukraine

The article analyses the Rozumovskyis’ family contribution in the development of the culture in Ukraine. The special attention is given to hetman Kyrylo Rozumovskyi, who had a passion to building and founded a lot of churches and amazing palace in Baturyn. His sons became prominent Russian statesmen, but they did not forget about their roots, they supported talented Ukrainian musicians. Andriy Rozumovskyi was known as a patron of arts, cared about composers. Oleksiy Rozumovskyi, who was a Minister of National education, significantly enlarged his father’s library. Also, the article reveals the important contribution of hetman’s daughters, Varvara Repnina»Volkonska and Kateryna Uvarova, who worried about cultural development of Ukraine as well. Varvara was a generous benefactress, she established institutes for the noble girls. The the great»grandson of hetman Kyrylo Rozumovskyi Kamil Rozumovskyi donated money for the restoration of Baturyn palace and for the school in Lemeshi village. On the whole elucidative and patron of art activity of Rozumovskyis’ family was not so much by a public duty and necessary attribute of solvent elite, and by the conscious position sent to creation and maintenance of cultural values.

The article analyzes the Rozumovskyi family contribution to the development of culture in Ukraine. Last Hetman of Ukraine and its descendants do not accidentally hit the list of known Ukrainian patrons. Following his family motto «Glory multiplies with affairs» and trying to benefit society, Rozumovskyi most of their funds directed to the development of education and science in the Ukrainian land, building and maintenance of churches, the support of prominent Ukrainian musicians and composers.

One of the greatest architectural monuments of XVIII century that was preserved until today is Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the city Kozelets created by prominent architects Ivan Grigorovich-Barsky and Andrew Kvasov. It was built at the cost of Kyrylo and his brother Oleksyi, now this beautiful cathedral is a monument of national importance. It is situated n his native village Lemeshi under Kozelets. Hetman built in 1775 majestic Three Saints Church.

Important activities of  Kyrylo Rozumovskyi Hetman’s was the development of capital – the city of Baturyn. While the town experienced its cultural and socio-economic growth. Hetman built his residence by the most prestigious world standards. In Baturyn worked to build such outstanding artists as architectural A. Kvasov, A. Rinaldi, Cameron, M. Lvov. Places of architecture today decorated in Baturin are the Church of the Resurrection and the hetman’s palace of the last Hetman. Church of the Resurrection is Kyrylo tomb, which was built in 1799 – 1803 years and is a shining example of classic style. The glory of Baturyn is palace and park ensemble of Kyrylo Rozumovskyi, which dates from 1799 – 1803 years. Its author was the famous Scottish architect Charles Cameron. The ensemble consists of two wings of the palace and built in the classical style in the spirit of the Roman archaic. This ensemble is unique, the only work of Cameron in Ukraine. Architectural heritage Rozumovskyi in Ukraine, particularly in Chernihiv, has a historic importance, but many require significant restoration of monuments and some even recovery.

One of the Hetman Rozumovskyi unrealized ideas that would help to transform the capital city of Baturyn was university project in 1760 it was to be for everyone institution with history and philology, law, natural and health departments. When it was planned to create a school for 40 persons, which would prepare for obtaining further education at university and university services. However, the prohibition and elimination of Catherine the Hetmanate in 1764 the University has not been opened.

In the middle of the XVIII century. Hetman Rozumovskyi in Hlukhiv, then in Baturin, started the art center where a professional manner was presented works of opera, ballet and musical instrumental art. The center brought new vision to the development of cultural life in Ukraine. As a result of its powerful impact art spread throughout Ukraine. Local landowners tried to be the same as culture Hetman court, establishing theaters and orchestras – horn, string, wind and symphonic. Art center Rozumovskyi established relationships not only with the aristocratic elite, but was available to a wide range of ordinary residents who could use the library and enjoy the arts. Special magnificence, richness was noted musical life for Hetman Rozumovskyi. Quickly spread fashion to music. Began arriving from Western Europe fashion Instruments: clavichord, klavichembalo, Gabo, horn. The city operated the military orchestra, professional theater west grade, which was opera, ballet and drama troupe, choir and orchestra. The repertoire included plays by Aeschylus, Goldoni, Moliere, Shakespeare, performed ballets «Venus and Adonis», «Aloyida» and others. Count Kyrylo Rozumovskyi was one of the first owners of a private chapel, founded in 1751 It was probably the best in the Russian Empire and inferior unless Imperial.

Kyrylo Rozumovskyi descendants were prominent public figures, who also supported the talented Ukrainian musicians. Prince Andrey Rozumovskyi, longtime ambassador to the court of Vienna, not only inherited his father’s estate and money, but the love of music, choral singing, which played such outstanding role in the fate of his family. Vienna was the center, where Ukrainian choral music spread throughout Europe, including the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Austrian Empire. Andrey Rozumovskyi maintained close relations and cooperated with Ludwig van Beethoven, resulting in a three string quartets and dedication to Count 5th and 6th symphonies. Granddaughter of the last Hetman Princess Varvara Repnina invested considerable effort in establishing schools, hospitals and orphanages. In her own money and was founded Poltava Institute of noble maidens. Grandson of Kyrylo Rozumovskyi Kamil Rozumovskyi donated significant funds to build a new village Lemeshi and restore family palace in Baturyn, who wanted to open a museum of antiquities.

Thus, the multifaceted activity of hetman Kyrylo Rozumovskyi and his descendants is an important contribution to a charitable cause. For them it was not a public duty and a fixture of the wealthy elite and conscious stance, aimed at the creation and preservation of cultural values.

Officials of Chernihiv city council: on the issue of payment of labour (1901 – 1917 years)

The municipal self-government of Chernihiv at the beginning of ХХ century was presented by duma – an administrative organ and by a council – executive. The staff of council was formed by a mayor, secretary and a few leaders who were accountable for the certain spheres of municipal economy. All of them had a status of civil servants and got their income in the size which was ratified by duma. The salary was appointed before the balloting on positions, that allowed to estimate really work of each leader and not to concentrate on a concrete person. The employees’ salary was constant. During 1901 – 1905 the Chernihiv mayor got 3000 roubles on a year, a secretary – 1500 roubles, three members of council – 900 roubles each of them and additionally 300 roubles for business trips, in total – 1200 roubles each of them. In 1905 according to expansion of executable duties the increase of rates took place. 3600 roubles was counted to a mayor, to the secretary – 1800 roubles, to the members of council – 1500 roubles each. The marked salaries remained unchanging to revolution of 1917 Chernihiv, comparatively with other province centers the size of salary had low economic parameters, that is why the size of income was determined not only once in four years but also remained static during a few next elections. In a period of the First world war, taking into account rising the price of foodstuffs, fuel, necessaries, a non-permanent material help was given.

Municipal self-government of Chernihiv in early twentieth century structurized by two institutions. Regulatory functions assigned to the Duma, the executive – to the board. They were elected for four years by representatives of local community, endowed with voting rights. Personal structure of the board presented by mayor, secretary and several managers who were responsible for specific areas of municipal economy. All members of the executive institution were in the status of civil servants moving up the career ladder in accordance with the Table of Ranks and received a salary in the amount determined by deputies of Duma.

The executive branch of self-government not only performed resolutions of Duma, but enjoyed the right of independent decision-making. Were approved plans for the construction of private homes, public baths, industrial facilities, safe from the environmental point of view; issued permits for various restructuring and capital repairs; together with police officers controlled the process of building of settlement.

The purpose of this studio is to analyze the volume of earnings of employees in Chernihiv City Council during 1901-1917. It is appropriate to determine whether the size of the official salary acted as a factor that stimulated the initiative and productivity, or, on the contrary, caused a desire to work at half strength?

Size of bets for managers defined by deputies before balloting on the posts. In this way, tried to avoid the subjectivity and adequately evaluate in monetary terms work of employees. Thus, from 1901 to 1905 mayor of Chernihiv received 3,000 rubles per year, the Secretary – 1500 rubles, three members of the Board – 900 rubles and additional 300 rubles for business trips, together – 1,200 rubles each. So each year 8100 rubles were allocated from the budget.

After elections to the institutions of municipal government for the period of 1905 – 1909 raised an issue of increasing salaries of Board members. As arguments emphasized heavy workload, responsibility and low level of payment for employees of municipal administration in comparison with other professions. Therefore deputies determined that during 1905 – 1909 for mayor it was counted 3,600 rubles, for secretary – 1800 rubles, for board members – 1,500 rubles (1200 rubles – wager and 300 rubles – for business trips).

Determining the size of salaries of officials of city government of Chernihiv explained by the following factors. First, in the early twentieth century significantly expanded the range of responsibilities in respect of communal economy, exploitation of objects of municipal property, implementation of socially important projects. With the accession of Empire in World War I added problems related to furnishing of military units, wounded and refugees; economic crisis forced to take care of proper food supply of the city, regulation of the price on local markets and so on. Bodies of self-governments, more than ever, need competent professionals, who were able to work with maximum efficiency. By the time of elections they occupied certain positions in accordance with the professional education with appropriate payment. Being delegated to the institution of public administration, they hoped, it’s quite natural, on the a decent financial reward. Secondly should take into account the level of responsibility of city leaders before community and state authorities. The members of the board were under constant and captious glance of the local community. Perceiving for the proper improvement of beautification of the city, it had a little thoughts over the fact how much efforts worth, for example, putting of pavement in Chernihiv, electrify, establish a centralized water supply system, open a new school and so on. Instead, any, even small, shortcomings in the work caused a wave of criticism and even making complaints to higher power institutions. So far as members of the board were civil servants, their activities in the same way were controlled by provincial government. Its representatives demanded from the self-governing structures primarily finance so-called «compulsory nationwide needs». Sometimes an important questions for the city is not resolved through bureaucratic delays or personal dislike between leaders of self-government and provincial administration. Therefore for people who sincerely wanted to change for a better life of citizens, a constant balancing between the interests of the community and the state led to significant psychological pressure, which can hardly compensate in monetary terms.

Administrative-territorial reforms in the northern Left Bank Ukraine in the last quarter XVIII – beginning ХІХ centuries

Administrative-territorial reform in 1781 – 1782, which was initiated by the government of Kateryna ІІ, became one of steps on the way of elimination of political autonomy of Getmanschina and complete integration of Left-bank Ukraine to Russian empire. In the process of it’s realization Ukrainian land was devided into governor-ruled regions as a part of Russian Empire. Greater part of North Left-bankness territory became a part of Chernihiv and Novgorod-Siverkiy governor-ruled region which were made in 1782, each of them were consisting of 11 districts, which lasted to 1796.With the aim of further centralization of power and establishment of the provost mode in the country Pavlo І initiated administrative-territorial reform as a result of which the Malorosiyskaya province were established in 1796. In 1801 Olexander І initiated the realization of administrative-territorial reform, as a result of that the Malorosiyskaya province in 1802 was regenerated to the Malorosiyskaya governor that consisted of the Chernihiv and Poltava provinces.

In the last quarter of the XVIII century Russian government conducted a range of activities, which led to the final destruction of the political autonomy of Hetmanate and full integration of Left-Bank Ukraine into the Russian Empire. By decree of Empress Catherine II on November 10, 1764 political institution of hetmanship was canceled and governance over Left-Bank Ukraine instructed to the Second Malorossiyskiy Collegium which was headed by the President P.A. Rymantsev. The next step was unification of the administrative and judicial system in accordance with the General Hetmanate.

In 1775 Catherine II initiated the administrative-territorial reform throughout the empire. November 7, 1775 was published «Establishment for the management of provinces of the Russian empire» («Institutions for control of provinces of the Russian Empire»). The law standardized dimensions of new provinces (Viceroyalty) and counties, clearly defined rights and responsibilities of local government. New administrative units were formed taking into account the number of people subject to taxation: in each province had to live from 300 to 400 thousand people in the county – from 20 to 30 thousand people.

According to the new administrative-territorial division were created provincial, county and municipal agencies, which were divided into administrative, financial and legal. Provincial agencies corresponded to the central institutions of the Russian Empire and locally took part of the functions of them. To number of provincial administrative agencies belonged provincial government, the Treasury House, word of public guardianship office and provincial land surveyor. Judicial institutions of provincial level were two houses civil and criminal court, three courts of second instance (upper district court, provincial magistrate and upper reprisal) and conscientious judgment.

County administrative agencies were represented by the lower district court, the county treasury, and officials: the county marshal of the nobility, Captain, land-surveyor and doctor. Judicial institutions representing the county level courts of first instance (district court, the nobility and the lower reprisal). The city administration headed by the mayor or the commandant, and legal proceedings of the commoners made by magistrate, city orphan court, city hall in positions and verbal courts in parts of the city.

The foundation of the provincial reform was to be clear and well-developed system of public order and justice. Therefore, in the new administrative-territorial apparatus at all levels quantitatively dominated judiciary.

According to «Establishment for the management of provinces» on the head of each province had to stand the Governor-General. But he usually became the imperial governor in two or even three provinces and hold in his hands very wide powers. Governor-General controlled the local authorities, was the head of the entire police commanded by the local forces, supervised the tax collection, etc. Judicial functions relied on him. He approved solutions in criminal cases, could suspend enforcement of the judgment, send it to the Senate and so on.

The main body of the province was oversight board composed of the governor-general, governor and the two counselors. Oversight reign brought to the attention of local institutions all orders of the Emperor, the Senate and other central government institutions, supervised their execution. He obeyed all Class courts and county police (the lower district court). The highest financial authority in the province was breech chamber, led by vice-governor or director of savings. It was in charge of revenue and expenses by province. The structure of the provincial administration created an entirely new institution in nature – the word of public care, in charge of included public education, public health, public charity and prisons.

Executive power within county owned the lower district court composed of captain and 2-3 judges. This institution performed order leadership in province, supervised the execution of laws, communications, trade, sought out peasant fugitives. Judicial institutions in the county were district court and lower reprisal. Thus, from the beginning in 1775 the maximum provincial reform began the centralization of power in the hands of the Governor-General, who was the imperial governor of the field, and an extensive system of local government with the assistance of their member local gentry possible to successfully carry out the decisions of the government and control all aspects of life society.

Testing of reform on Russian territory, Catherine II extended the validity of «Establishment for the management of provinces» on the Ukrainian land. Appropriate training on the orders of Empress of May 24, 1779 carried out by P.A. Rumyantsev, appointed Governor-General of the Left-Bank Ukraine in November 1775 he had an assist newly administered by Catherine II Little Russia (Malorossia) Governor A. Miloradovych. He made a core set of activities related to the preparation of the administrative-territorial reform. During the second half of 1779 – the first half of 1781 Little Russia governor together with a special Commission made a comprehensive description of Left-bank Ukraine and had a record of its population. September 16, 1781 went out imperial decree on the establishment within three Viceroyalty at Left-bank Ukraine – Kiev, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Siverskyi, Chernihiv, Novhorod-Siverskyi and Kyiv governors subordinated to the Governor-General, who represented the supreme executive power in Kiev, Chernihiv and Novhorod-Siverskyi governorship. Each of the three Viceroyalty divided into 11 counties. New territorial division completely ignored previous regiment-hundreds.

Governorship lasted until 1796 when by the decree of Emperor Paul I on November 30, 1796 Little Russia province was formed, the boundaries of which actually covered the historical territory of the Left Bank Hetman. The structure of the province entered the land of Chernihiv, Novhorod-Siverskyi, partially Kiev and Katerynoslav province. Chernihiv became a provincial town. Through reform, the Russian government has significantly simplified the system of local institutions, especially the judiciary. On the territory of left-bank Ukraine dignity to the decree of Paul I in 1796 opened the General Court, whose members are elected by Ukrainian nobles, and in the counties – rural (for civil cases) and the pidkomorskyi (in Land Survey cases) courts.

After the coup d’état at 11 March 1801 Alexander I became the emperor, issued a decree on September 9, 1801 which brought a huge distribution of vast territory of Little Russia province into two provinces and formation of double «set» of government officials, police and judicial dual system. Administrative-territorial transformation, embodied in practice for a long time, although they were relatively «cosmetic» in comparison with the previous reform in 1796 The next hundred years made no changes to the administrative division, which was established in region in 1801 – 1802.

To the question of administrative and territorial division of Pryluky cossack regiment

The article approaches a problem of creation and existence of Pryluky Cossack Regiment as administrative-territorial unit of the Hetmanate. The author states that despite the significant achievements of historians on the issues of the administrative-territorial division of the Cossack regiments, the issues of internal formation of Cossack Hundreds within Hetmanate Regiments are still the matter of research. Specifically, the author tries to determine the frontiers of Pryluky Cossack Regiment in relation to neighboring Cossack Regiments. Also the number of Cossack Hundreds of Pryluky Cossack Regiment in different time periods is determined, and the causes for changes in the structure of Cossack Hundred formations of the Cossack Regiment are defined. The author concludes that external territorial boundaries of Pryluky Cossack Regiment didn’t change in fact, unlike with the internal administrative structure. The number of Cossack Hundreds ranged from eighth to twenty one. The migration processes within the Hetmanate and the gradual changes in status of Ukrainian lands within the Muscovy in the first and later within the Russian Empire were the main causes for such changes.

In article discusses administrative divisions of Pryluky cossack regiment, from the beginning of the national liberation Revolution of Ukrainian people in the middle of seventeenth century. (1648) till cancel of regimental-centesimal structure in 1782.

From the start of the National Revolution till making of Zboriv agreement 8 (18) in August 1649, the territory of the left-bank Kiev province deship appear first military, and subsequently the administrative-territorial units of the future Cossack state, regiments: Gadyach, Zinkiv, Irakliyiv, Poltava, Myrgorod, Ichnya, Priluky, Nizhyn, Lubny and Kropyvna.

On the basis of Zboriv agreement Cossack officers Council decided to divide forty thousand of Registered Cossack troops into 16 regiments and 272 hundreds within the limits of Bratslav, Kyiv and Chernihiv voivodeships. Among them was Pryluky regiment, which included twenty-one hundred. Pereyaslav district was divided into Pereyaslav and Pryluky regiments.

According to the register in 1649 Timothy Nosach became Pryluky Colonel. Colonel was assigned by hetman himself. Center of Pryluky regiment was the most economically developed city in these areas – Pryluky. From inception of Regiment Colonel implemented his authority through Cossack foremen – first of all squadron, which was mostly intended by him. Colonel in the territory of the regiment as captain in the territory of hundreds united in their hands military, judicial and administrative power. Under the responsibility of Colonel was chieftain policeman (gorodovyi otaman) in Pryluky, сentesimal and hovel chieftains (kurin otamans). Centesimal officers subordinate to Hetman and regimental administration. Hovel chieftains performed mainly organizational and business functions. Elder was elected on the meetings by villagers. Hovel chieftains as village elder, had the lowest element in the administration and subordinate to squadron officers. Officially parceling of Registered Cossacks on Kurins found for the first time in the registry in 1581.

Similar administrative units were possessive land or «Dominion». First of all this land and settlements belonged to monasteries and hetman. In some cases, villages which were part of Hetman rank ownership formed elderships. Eldership had its own administration and differentiation of governance that did not obey the local Cossack administration.

According to the register on October 16, 1649 Pryluky regiment consisted of 21 hundreds in 16 towns, there were 1996 cossacks. In 1654 one Varva, Horodnya, Huzhivka, Divytsia, Kropyvna and one Prylutska hundred were eliminated – accordingly, there are only 14 hundreds.

In 1672 Konotop papers were signed by 9 captains of hundreds of Pryluky regiment, respectively, at that time in Pryluky regiment was 11 hundreds: two Pryluky, two Varva, Ichnya, Sribne, Krasne, Ivanytsia, Zhuravka, Monastyrysche, Korybutivka. In 1723 in the Pryluky regiment was 8 hundreds. Their number has changed after joining Korybutivka hundred to Krasnokolyadyn (former Krasne).

Since 1761 Pryluky regiment had 11 hundreds, which survived until the end of 1781, in 1780 the regiment had 11 hundreds, 9 towns and 547 villages.

Although the number of hundreds frequently changed, the territory of Pryluky regiment remained about the same throughout the history of its existence. Fluctuations in the hundreds probably related to the number of inhabitants of Regiment – especially the Cossacks. With the increasing number of immigrants from the Right-Bank Ukraine and improvement of demographic situation, increased the number of hundreds, and vice versa, with increasing of migration of peasants and Cossacks to Sloboda Ukraine  (Slobozhanshchina) number of hundreds decreased.

Important role in formation of the centesimal played implementation in 1763 of institutions «By-laws», «Zemsky», «hrodsky» and «pidkomorsky» courts in the Russian Empire. Because of that, along with regimental-hundred, the Hetmanate was introduced the forensic county division (lasted until 1782).

After the abolition of regimental-centesimal structure of Hetmanate in 1782, the territory was divided between two vicegerencies. Zhuravka, Perevolocha and Pryusky hundreds entered Pyryatyn County of Kiev province, the rest to various districts of Chernihiv governorship. Throughout the existence of the Pryluky Cossack regiment its territorial limits in fact did not change, as opposed to internal administrative structure, which often changed.

Lyubech hundred of Chernihiv regiment: to the question formation

The problem of the formation of the Lyubetska Sotnia of the the Chernigiv Regiment is a disputable issue in a contemporary historiography which requires some additional reasoning. Both the significance of the Castle of Lyubech as a border outpost and the availability of the neighboring nobility clarify Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s interest in the area as well as the Lyubech nobility. Surely there was a part of this stratum which did not accept new political conditions and took the side of the Republic of Poland. By 1648 the Cossack rebellion had spread over the region. In the end of the summer the rebels took Lyubech. Probably at that very time Loyevska and apparently Lyubetska Cossack Sotnias were established on the territory of the Loyevsk and Lyubech elderships. But soon Lyubech was taken by the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Besides the majority of the local nobility became Cossacks only in 1649. It was the local nobility who played a considerable part in the formation of the Cossack starshyna of the Chernigiv regiment. It was not until 1651 that the Lyubetskaya Sotnia became a fully-fledged military-administrative unit.

The question of time and circumstances of forming of Lyubech hundred of Chernihiv Regiment in historiography remains one of the most disputed and requires additional arguments. There is a necessity for further searches in the definition of number of hundreds as Chernihiv as well as other regiments of Hetmanate because even the number of regiments in the early decades of existence of Hetmanate ranged from 20 to 35. Among them were regiments with military and administrative units as well as military units formed to perform specific combat missions.

The purpose of this study is an attempt to resolve the issue of time of forming of Lyubech hundred of Chernihiv Regiment.

On the eve of the Khmelnytsky period (1646) Lyubech and Loyiv foremen were able to put 600 riders armed «as сossacks». Considering that one rider exhibited from 5-6 persons the number of troops in the region was about 3000 – 3500 people. Indisputably, that the flow of polish nobility and fight against magnate tyranny led Lyubech gentry to «сossack bread» and caused participation of substantial part in the National revolution of Ukrainian people in the middle of seventeenth century. However, part of this layer did not take the new political realities and was on the side of the Rich Pospolita.

Value of Lyubech castle as border outpost and the presence of neighboring nobility – professional army, explain interest of Bohdan Khmelnytsky as to the region and to Lyubech gentry. At the same time Khmelnytsky and his colleagues actually managed to split noble layer so far as hetman authority accepted nobles to cossack ranks with guarantee of preservation of their rights and estates. In May 1648 B. Khmelnytsky appealed to cossacks with the ban on execution of Ukrainian nobility, in July issued a decree with a ban on doing harm to estates of «Lithuanian» gentry. In fact, one could argue that the Ukrainian nobility was taken under the personal protection of hetman.

During June – August in 1648 cossack troops took control of almost the whole territory of Chernihiv-Sivershchyna by taking Chernihiv, Novgorod-Siversky, Starodub and other cities. In july, they captured Gomel, Loyiv, Bragin, initiating the formation of Bragyn and Rechytsa cossack regiments. In august Loyiv and Lyubech were taken. Probably at the same time on the territory of former Lyubech and Loyiv foremen were formed Loyiv and apparently Lyubech cossack hundreds.

However, by the register in 1649 Lyubech hundred in Chernihiv regiment is not fixed – in its composition was regimental Chernihiv, Borzna, Bakhmatch, Baturin, Konotop, Sosnytsia and Ivanhorod. In the summer of 1649 Loyiv hundred existed, but at the time of drafting of registry was not, because Loyiv went to the Great Lithuanian Principality. Similarly Lyubech in 1649 was captured by the army of Radziwill. In winter in 1649 hetman Radziwill managed to force out the part of cossack troops from the region, but in the spring of 1649 under Bragyn cossacks were grouped again and cossack garrison returned to Loyiv.

There is also no evidence that all Lyubech gentry unquestioningly supported rebels, it is obvious that at this time most of it took neutral position. The nobility refused to join the army and Yarema Vyshnevetsky. It is likely that at the beginning of its existence Lyubech hundred mainly consisted of Lubech lower middle class citizens and petty boyars.

Real transition of Lyubech gentry to the cossacks began in 1649. Many of its representatives were cossacks from Nizhyn, Kiev and Chernihiv regiments. «Noble» component played a major role in the formation of cossack starshyna of Chernihiv regiment. Thus, the scribe in Chernihiv regiment by Martyn Nebaba was Lyubech nobleman Ivan Kraskovskyy (1649 – 1651). Chernihiv regimental captain (sotnyk) in 1650 was Ivan Ihrovetskyy that in 1651 participated in the siege of Lyubech by cossacks.

The new political realities were not accepted unreservedly by all representatives of Lyubech gentry. Before them, as well as before all Ukrainian gentry, there was a problem of internal struggle between «ethnic rusin» and «polish political». And this split divided on hostile camps not only Lyubech nobility as a whole but also the individual families. About pro-polish position of the part of Ukrainian nobility affirmed decisions of noble bodies of territorial government of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Volyn provinces. Its representatives continued to receive royal privileges on their estates.

In winter of 1648-1649 counteroffensive of army of Great Principality of Lithuanian led by J. Radziwill began. To secure from army of Great Principality of Lithuanian, Khmelnitsky sent three thousand soldiers to Loyiv starostvo headed by colonel Ilya Golota. In further military actions in summer of 1649 Loyiv and Lyubech played an important role in central defense of Chernihiv-Sivershchyna from lithuanian troops, although in the documents did not mention the existence of Lyubech hundred.

Thus, considering the logic of events and the fact that Lyubech and Loyiv starostvo were single complex, time of appearance of Lyubech hundred must be synchronous with the time of appearance of Loyiv hundred. Is impossible to exclude that at the beginning of the rebellion majority of members of lyubech nobility (except part of petty boyars) took neutral holding position. This was facilitated by the general anti noble mood of peasant and lower middle class stratum. Accordingly, founded in 1648 Lyubech hundred probably consisted of local lower middle class citizens and part of petty lyubech boyars and hardly was a serious military unit. Only after moving of professional army to the side of Khmelnytsky (this process becomes widespread in 1649), Lyubech hundred becomes complete fighting unit of Chernihiv regiment.

Cossack foremen of Mena hundred in the Goverment of Hetmanate and Russian empire (XVIII – beginning XIX century)

Іn the article accomplished an attempt of reconstruction of official career of natives of Cossack foremen families that lived on territory of Mena hundred of Chernihiv regiment. Taking into account an origin, education, personal ties and other possibilities and other possibilities for obtaining relevant positions and ranks, an author compares an official way and activities of separate representatives of foremen families in centesimal, regimental structures and central government of Hetmanate bodies. At the same time the process of their passing is traced into the service to imperious establishments of the Russian empire with obtaining appropriate ranks and getting rights to the Russian nobility. As a result in the end XVIII of century most of Cossack officers from Mena hundred continued their career in the system of institutes of the new government and satisfied the claims to the status of noblemen. Some of them took an active part in the work of commissions on consideration of cases of applicants for the nobility. However only about the negligible quantity of foremen in future documentary information was saved about confession their noblemen. The presented research certifies the necessity of further researches on issues of the questions of acquisition of former Сossack foremen and their stay at the military and civil service in the Russian empire.

In the XVIII century in social and political life of the Ukrainian cossack state («Zaporizhia Army») came a period of relative quiescence, relatively stabilized its administrative-territorial structure and system of governance institutions. The central leadership of the state and management at the level of territorial units (regiments or hundreds) stuck in the hands of the cossack officers. It is known that Hetmanate as an autonomy was under the protection of the Russian Empire. Russian monarchs took a decisive course for incorporation of Ukrainian lands to general imperial body gradually limiting the power of the Hetman and local government. In these circumstances, cossack foremen that identified itself not otherwise than nobility wanted anything to maintain its dominant position and use the fullness of rights, which had its predecessors in the days of government of Rich Pospolyta. One of the means to strengthen its position were numerous requests of cossack leaders concerning the equalization of the rights of russian military and civilian ranks (according to the «Table of Ranks»), then – russian nobility and gradual transition to military and bureaucratic service of Russian empire. In this process were involved government officials of all levels of authority and representatives of non-governmental Hetman officers.

In this research realized an attempt to trace the development of career of representatives of cossack foremen who lived within Mena hundred of Chernihiv regiment. The process of adaptation to military and civil service in the new imperial conditions displayed simultaneously with getting of former petty foremen of noble ranks and titles.

Mena hundred as administrative and territorial unit of Chernihiv regiment for single references was known in 1648. In 1654 it is mentioned as part of Nizhyn, and since 1672 – as part of Chernihiv regiment.

At the end of the XVII century in the local reign and life of hundred leading positions gradually embraces Sakhnovsky family that came from cossacks of Mena. Four of it representatives headed the hundred for 62 years with breaks. And the two centurions (sotnyky) from Mena Ignat and his son Ivan Sakhnovsky was promoted to post quartermaster (obozniy) in Chernihiv regiment. From among Mena centesimal foremen also came out Chernihiv regiment captain (osavul) Vasily Pavlovsky. In the middle of the XVIII century cornet (horunzhy) post in the centesimal administration for a long time held natives from Omelyut family. At the end of the XVII century on the territory of Mena hundred representatives of cossack-settlers from right-bank regiments received estates (Kolchevsky, Lysenko, Polonytsky).

During the liquidation of regimental-centesimal order of 1781 – 1782 began the process of direct transformation of cossack foremen to the Russian nobility. Appeared many applicants among representatives of foremen who wanted to get nobility. In accordance with rescripts from October 26, 1782 after the introduction of viceroyalties and deputy noble assemblies, special commission was supposed to be formed and carried out so-called «parsing of nobility». In December of 1782 district marshal of nobility of Sosnytsia district Sahnovskyy Pavel prepared a list of 213 candidates for the status of nobility, 53 of which were from Mena hundred. The list included people who were already in the Russian service, bunchukovy, military, znachkovy comrades, former regimental, centesimal foremen, military red-tapist. Of these, only 21 candidate belonged to representatives of aforementioned families of cossack foremen, the rest – 32 (former centesimal government officials, significant friends) came from cossacks. Overall in Mena hundred in XVIII century mentioned 4 significant military comrades, 23 bunchukovy, 27 military and 20 znachkovy comrades.

At the beginning of the XIX century representatives of a few notable foremen families of former Mena hundred after durable consideration of their cases in Heroldmeyster office were deemed by nobles with the provision of appropriate emblems. To such belonged Kolchevsky, Lysenko Polonytsky, Sahnovsky and probably Omelyut. According to our calculations 4 representatives of them received the rank of titular councilor, 6 people – collegiate assessor, 6 people – outdoor and collegiate advisors, 1 person – state councilor.

Generally at the end of the XVIII century most of the former foremen from Mena hundred continued their careers at the military and civil service of the Russian Empire. They completed cases of state institutions of the former Hetmanate until it was eliminated, or became officials in local authorities at district and provincial levels. Along with representatives of well-known foremen families at the initial stages less wealthy natives from Cossack state got here. Their further destiny and official career in the XIX century remains one of the issues that need further investigation.

Executive bodies of Nizhyn Cossack Regiments middle of XVII – end of XVIII centuries

The creation of the regimental and centesimal levels of executive power began in 1648. All power in Nizhyn Cossack Regiment belonged to Nizhyn Colonel, who solved the military and economic issues, realized hetman’s decisions. Nizhyn elders consisted of: an oboznyi, a judge, a scribe, anosavul and a horunzhyi. Regimental elders determined the domestic policy of the government. All posts of Nizhyn elders were elected, but in reality they were appointed by Ukrainian hetman and in the XVIII century – by the Russian government. Nizhyn regimental chancellery was a highly collegial executive body in Cossack regiment. The centesimal elders, the next element after the regimental executive authorities, were headed by sotnik. The mentioned officials often neglected their own enrichment. They required numerous bribes, oppressed cossacks and peasants. At the end of XVIII century executive agencies of Nizhyn Cossack regiment acquired purely formal significance and were abolished by the Russian government.

Studying the system of executive bodies of the Cossack state in the middle of XVII – end of the XVIII century since the XIX century is the subject of historical and jurisprudential research. Distinctive unique and brightly expressed militarized orientation of executive apparatus of Hetmanate today creates a wide field for historical research, based on the experience of previous generations and new developments of historical and jurisprudential disciplines.

The article aims to identify executive bodies of Hetmanate on regimental-centesimal level on the example of capital Nizhyn Cossack Regiment in 1648 – 1783. Restoration of Ukrainian statehood in 1648, put questions before the Ukrainian people of compiling of its own state apparatus, separation of the major branches of power, creation of new administrative structures and posts. In conditions of war, permanent mobilization, military organization has turned into political and territorial, and division into regiments and hundreds became the scheme of public administration.

Plenitude of military and civil authorities in Nizhyn regiment belonged to colonel. They became mostly people who were skilful commanders, used special confidence of hetman and had authority over the officers and Cossack regiment. According to cossacks customs the post of colonel was electoral. However, in practice Ukrainian hetmans, trying to centralize power, appointed colonels by their own universals. Bohdan Khmelnytsky and his successors gave colonel posts to relatives, it was explained by two factors: first, the proximity of Nizhyn, Chernihiv, Starodub to hetman residences in Baturin and Gluhiv; second, the remoteness to Zaporizhska Sich, because people adjacent to Zaporizhia more fiercely defended their rights when choosing colonel and authority of Hetman’s mace, especially after the death of Bohdan Khmelnytsky was weak here.

Starting from the XVIII century electivity and appointment of colonels gradually passed into the hands of Russian government, which tried to unify ethnically colorful provinces of the state. At the request of his representatives Hetman Ivan Skoropadsky had to dismiss suspicious colonels, and since 1715 a new system of appointment of regimental officers was introduced. Elections were canceled, and it undermined key foundations of existence of the cossack administration based on supremacy of solutions of general’s and petty councils. To the functions of cossack councils belonged only selection of two or three candidates, one of whom was appointed by hetman in agreement with the resident of Moscow government. Appointment to the post of Nizhyn Colonel of earl P. Tolstoy started political thought out tradition of Moscow government to place on petty posts Russian nobles, thereby turning them into imperial governors of Ukrainian provinces.

In the sphere of public administration colonel acted as performer of principal decisions of hetman and general foreman. His task was to quickly bring information about decisions of the supreme legislative power to the people of regiment and follow up its accomplishment. Militarily, the colonel was responsible for state of formed on the territory of regiment military unit, took care of its fighting ability, ensured discipline, tangible provision and mobilization. In the jurisdiction of the colonel were collecting taxes for military treasure and distribution of free farmlands between representatives of the Cossack based on their military merit. Realization of power of colonel was provided by regimental officer: transport driver, calligrapher, judge, osavul and cornet. Formally, each of the post was elective, but in fact it was received by adherents of hetmans and Nizhyn colonels.

The next element after regimental were bodies of executive power on centesimal level. Plenitude of executive power was concentrated by sotnik who has administrative, military and judicial functions within the limits of subordinated to him territorial unit. His responsibilities were promulgation and enforcement of orders received from regimental chancellery, conducting of revisions of population, descriptions of property, collection of various fees from population, authentification of contracts of purchase and sale of estates and others. Sotnik headed the centesimal formation, which included centesimal otaman, centesimal calligrapher, centesimal osavul and centesimal cornet. To the functions of listed formation, except otaman belonged same duties as to the regimental formation. In contrast to the regimental formation of Nizhyn regiment centesimal formation did not have ranked estates and keeping of it fully relied on cossack and peasant population, subordinated to them hundreds

On the whole bodies of executive power of Nizhyn cossack regiment in the middle of XVII – end of the XVIII century fulfill the popular tradition of state building on regimental-centesimal level. The system of obtaining of posts in regimental formation of Nizhyn regiment, as in all of Hetmanate, was not stable and well defined. Colonel posts were received either by election or appointments by hetmans himself. Sotnik of Nizhyn cossack regiment were elected either by cossacks of hundreds or appointed from above. This dual combination was an example of coexistence between democratic and authoritarian tendencies in the managing of cossack state in the second half of XVII – end of the XVIII.

Entrusted to the bodies of executive power functions allowed to regimental and centesimal formations create conditions for socio-economic development of Nizhyn and centesimal centers, to ensure order in society, create a protection system of population of Nizhyn regiment and executing of tasks set by the state. At the same time defined officials, primarily took care about their own enrichment, demanded numerous bribes, harassed cossacks and peasant population. At the end of the XVIII century bodies of executive power of Nizhyn regiment became purely formal meaning, had no real levers of power and were abolished by the Russian government.

The struggle for Ukraine as stage of The World Revolution (based on the publications of the magazine «Communist», 1919)

The acticle deals with the the publications of the propagandist magazine «Communist», two numbers of whitch were published in Chernihiv in the autunm of 1919, when the government of the Soviet Ukraine was in the city. Among the personal touches of the contained publications it is certain prevailing in them of idea of world revolution, frankneglect to Ukrainian national liberation motion actual acquittal of consequences of red terror as to the means of intimidation and elimination of bourgeoisie. Also attention applies on illumination of materials of reasons of defeats of bolshevist army authors in Ukraine. On the whole working of the texts of the articles witnessed practical insolvency of bolshevist guidance of Ukraine to offer th new going nearpainful of that time problems. At an extremely heavy military situation it continued to push through goes world revolution, Ukraine  was examined foremost as territory of fight against «counter-revolution», place of arms for an offensive westward, and it population  as auxiliary or even expense material.

At the end of August in 1919 bodies of Soviet power were evacuated from Kyiv and came to Chernihiv, where delayed for about half months before they had to give up to Denikin forces. However, bolshevik leaders were not going to lose Ukraine. This is evidenced by publication in the magazine which was coming out in Chernihiv exactly at the residence time of higher bodies of KP(b)U and soviet power. The status of publication was defined as weekly addition to «News of the Council of workers and peasants defence of Ukraine», which was published by CC CP(b)U. The first issue was published on September 25, the second (and probably last) – October 1, 1919. Magazine came out in Russian.

In the announcement of editorship, placed in the first issue, emphasized that «Communist» – a body designed to run on the territory of Ukraine occupied by general Denikin. Publishers appealed with the request to send messages, reports, correspondence about the work of the bolshevik party in the occupied territories.

Starting with the appeal of editorship in the first issue, all materials were soaked with gloomy pathos of struggle against all, carefully listed enemies of Bolshevik forces: military dictatorship of german imperialism, white guard and hetman government», officer and kurkul (prosperous peasant) directory of Petliura-Vynnychenko» and, finally, generals and landlord folks of A. Denikin.

Moreover the last enemy was proclaimed the principal, and the idea of world revolution continued to dominate the theoretical postulates and ideological and political concepts of the russian bolshevik forces.

Ukrainian national liberation movement was openly neglected, and Ukraine in these materials was seen primarily as a territory, a place of struggle against Denikin forces and springboard for an attack on the West. Simon Petliura and so called Petliurists were intended to be synonyms of vile figure of kurkul or the concept of kurkulstvo.

But talking about the atrocities in Ukrainian cities allegedly committed by Denikin forces, authors declared about need of red terror as a means of intimidation and destruction of the bourgeoisie. On pages of magazine were placed messages of bolshevik loss, however obituaries of those killed bolshevik leaders were mostly insignificant. Often they do not even cited the name and age of the dead people.

However, on the pages of edition were publications, authors of which sought to find a way out of a very dangerous situation, at which they drove themselves, although this last was considered extremely reluctant. Among the causes of defeat of the Red Army in Ukraine authors called panic moods of soldiers, lack of command staff, «partyzanschyna» (guerrilla) and other specific conditions in Ukraine. As a way suggested combining of military forces with Soviet Russia. Thus leading role in the fight against numerous enemies directly assigned to the Russian communist party of bolshevik forces (RCP(b)). In the publications of magazine is shown that the party leaders had distrustful attitude towards Ukrainian peasantry, even though it was the driving force of all rebel groups in Ukraine. It was stressed on the necessity of taking actions, in order that the peasant movement don’t degenerated into «partyzanschyna» and gain the sympathy of middle peasant to worker-peasant government.

In general analysis of texts, partly frankly propagandistic, partly with a claim on the theoretical substantiation of measures aimed at overcoming of many enemies, confirming the practical inability of bolshevik leaders of Ukraine offer new approaches to urgent issues of that time. For extremely severe military situation, it is by no means departing from the idea of pushing to world revolution. Thus population of the territory, which turned into the arena of «decisive battle» between the world proletariat and world imperialism or «counter-revolution», was interpreted as supporting or even consumption material.

Such a guidance found its embodiment in the uncompromising hostility to the kulrkulstvo, which appears in every publication among the worst enemies of soviet power. Because the peasantry was completely indifferent to global plans of russian bolshevik forces and did not want to give their bread for free, then class hatred and the red terror spread on it. Imaginary or real kurkulstvo equated to most fierce opponents of the new system. Defeat of ukrainian military and political forces in the fight for Kyiv was successfully used to discredit UNR, lowering its guidance to the level of «bandits». However, the resistance of the peasantry – though poorly organized, but massive insurgent movement – forced V. Lenin to change for better attitude towards Ukraine as a whole and towards its peasantry in particular.

Forming ecoming of territory of the Chernihiv regiment in the second half of the XVIIth century

In the article the stages of forming of territory of the Chernihiv regiment are examined in the second half of XVIIth century. Author pays attention to conditional enough, unsteady character of  it borders on the initial stage of existence that was caused by stormy political, military and administrative changes. Also  the  fragmentaryness of data registers in sources in relation to the amount of hundreds of the Chernihiv regiment and them permanent transition in the complement of nearby regiments in accordance with the tasks of top management. An author establishes artificial character of configuration of the Chernihiv regiment after Zboriv anagreement in 1649, in the lists of that considerable hundreed’s centers are absent round Chernihiv. According to his opinion, it was predefined by one of agreements of Zboriv of agreement on reduction of cossack register to 40 thousands persons. The further forming of territory of regiment came true in 1654 – 1672 and was related with change of orientation of foreign policy of hetmans toward the Moscow state. Beginning from 1672 the Chernihiv regiment unchanging consisted of 16 hundreds that notedly differed inter se after the sizes of territory and amount of settlements.

Chernihiv regiment started to be formed soon after the national liberation revolution in the summer of 1648. On the territory of Left Bank Ukraine acted Cossacks detachments led by leaders – companions of B. Khmelnitsky – M. Nebaba, P. Holovatsky, M. Gladky, who released the territory of Chernihivschina from Polish gentry.

Regiment which were created in the liberated territories, were both military and administrative units of a young Ukrainian Cossack state. Chernihiv regiment, the first mention of which related to July 1648, formed on the basis of Chernihiv district of Chernihiv province (first of all Chernihiv starostvo, Horodnya, Sedniv, Slabyn districts) and Lyubech starostvo, occupying territory on the river Desna, Snov and Seim.

Frontiers of Chernihiv regiment did not stabilize immediately, due to instability of traditions of cossack governance, rapid nature of military and administrative and territorial changes during the first years of a National liberation revolution. On the eastern borders of Chernihiv regiment in 1648 – 1649 there were separate Borzna and Sosnytsia regiments, some hundreds of Chernihiv and Nizhyn regiments moved from one regiment to another –according to the military situation and strategic tasks set by the government.

Study of these processes turned out to be quite difficult due to the lack of sources. Obviously, at the first time to the complement of Chernihiv regiment included Chernihiv regimental, Sedniv, Slabyn and Lyubech hundreds (or Loyiv, mention of which belong to summer in 1649, although according to some data source in 1648 – 1649 Loyiv hundred was part of Bragyn or Rechytsa regiment or separate Loyiv regiment). There is also information about the existence of Stolne, Roysche and Mena hundreds in the first period of the Liberation War. In view of the dynamic and unstable political-military situation that required a prompt response and clear control of military units, this practice could easily take place.

More substantial reorganization of Cossack regiments took place after the Treaty of Zboriv in 1649. It had a hasty nature, which is evident in the case of Chernihivschina. Of course, Zboriv peace in 1649 had to limit cossack freedom, «press» the rapid rebel sea in a 40-thousand register, some reform was inevitable.

However, performed reorganization was seemingly too artificial. So, as part of Chernihiv regiment named seven hundreds: Chernihiv regimental, Borzna, Bakhmach, Baturin, Konotop, Sosnytsia, Ivanhorod. On the one hand, this is the first known list of hundreds of regiment, on the other – it’s prematurely to make any serious conclusions on their basis. In the register in 1649 there is no reference about hundreds to the west or north from Chernihiv, except Regimental where there were once 400 cossacks. So the origins of such hundreds as Roysche, Lyubech, Bilous and Slabyn, Sedniv, Gorodnya, you need to look at hundreds of Regimental, whether is too large territory even for hundred in 400 cossacks?

Therefore, we can state the full inconsistency of list of hundreds on the roster in 1649 with the real situation of the first two years of the war, which once again testifies the convention of the Treaty of Zboriv, which was not perceived by cossacks as a long-term agreement. Moreover, outlined in the registry list of hundreds, probably never existed in practice, because cossacks centers presented above continue to operate. The same logic of events contradicts the Zboriv register. In view of the constant activity of the cossacks in Loyiv and Gomel destinations in the early years of the war, it would be foolish to put it all on one single regimental hundred.

In the usual form the territory of Chernihiv regiment was formed in 1654 – 1672, that was associated with the processes of reorientation of foreign policy of number of cossack hetman (first of all I. Briukhovetsky, D. Mnohohrishny, I. Samoilovych) toward the Russian kingdom and caused some reformatting of regiments of Left Bank Ukraine. So during 1672 – 1782 Chernigiv regiment invariably consisted of 16-hundreds: Berezna, Bilous, Vybli, Volynka, Gorodnya, Kyselivka, Lyubech, Mensa, Ponornytsia, Roysche, Sedniv, Syniavka, Slabyn, Sosnytsia, Stolne and Chernigiv regimental, which significantly differed in territorial size and number of inhabited localities.

Some features of construction of K. Rozumovskyi’s palace and park complex in Baturyn

The article researches the history of the building of K.Rozumovskyi’s palace and park complex in Baturyn. Stages and features of its construction are revealed. An idea is grounded, that it beginning is on 1760th, when the teacher of К. Rozumovskyi G. Teplov began to build a nown house in Baturyn, and also pawned a park on the earth presented to him by a hetman. Information is analysed from documentary sources about a location and internal planning of house o G.Teplov, versions are examined inrelation to authorship of primary project of estate. It could belong to a few architects among them is the Italian architect А. Rinaldi. Further development of court-style-park complex lasted already in 1790th after a return these earth by К. Rozumovskyi and at participation of the English architect Ch. Kameron. An author the results of numerous researches of architectural features of palace and his finishing, on the basis of that drawn conclusion, are illuminated, that Ch. Kameron did the already existent one-story house of G. Teplov, where upon there was realizable building on of the second and third floors.

The article explained the history of construction of palace and park complex of last hetman of Left-bank Ukraine Kyrylo Rozumovsky in Baturyn. As you know, his palace was built in 1799 – 1803 designed by Scottish architect Charles Cameron. However unexplored is the fact that before him in this building were at least two founders, and its construction started in 1760’s. For forty years of its existence, changing owners, it could undergo significant architectural changes, until received its final appearance in 1803.

Establishment of palace and park complex is associated with the name of teacher and mentor Rozumovsky Gregory Teplov, to whom hetman in 1760 by his decree presented lands in Baturin. Soon Teplov greatly expanded his ownership by purchasing neighboring lands. In these territories in 1760 – 1764 was founded park and construction started. After abolition of the hetmanate in 1764 Teplov returned to Baturyn estate which remained in his possession until 1772 and kept in good condition. 12 years after donation of Baturyn lands K. Rozumovsky bought it out from Teplov for 10 thousand rubles. At the time in the estate was park, two wings, a home for workers and unfinished house of owner.

In 1794 Rozumovsky finally settled in Baturyn, devoted himself to building of estate to the end of life. Herewith some restructuring he may carry out along previous two decades, replaning house with the participation of famous architects of the time. Therefore it is likely that as of 1790, it was one-storeyed, not including basements and attics. Maybe that year Rozumovsky planned usual redevelopment of Teplov building by inviting Cameron for this.

It is unknown how events developed, but the architect came to Baturyn only in 1799 In general architect was not a supporter of rapid projecting, however the project completed in a short time.

Regarding the construction of the palace there are following version. Many researchers, based on plans and results of inspection of the palace substructure, were inclined to the fact that Cameron rebuilt Teplov house. By definition of architect M.G. Terziev, Cameron used the existing substructure and walls, including them to the basement of new building. This version also confirmed a number of significant differences in planning structure of the basement and upper floors, which were seen as on the drawings and during the inspection of brickwork of the basement and upper floors of buildings. At a time when superstructure over Teplov building was carried out, first floor and ground floor were suitable for habitation.

Baturyn palace is a unique architectural monument, because it is the only example in Ukraine of «cubic» centric composition of palace. Another feature of this structure is that the roof was made of separate thick zinced sheets of iron. Between the stone blocks of columns, for strength, lead fitting was laid. For the decoration of the palace was used marble limestone. The walls of the first floor, which was like a pedestal for the entire building, built of unhewn stone (rusticated). The main facade is decorated with eight column ionic portico on the arcade. Garden facade has an outdoor terrace that is based on the colonnade of tuscan order.

For researchers such a combination of «hard archaic bottom with slight colonnade of portico with ionic heads of columns» seemed surprising and appeared questions about who began to build this palace. One of these is considered an italian architect Antonio Rinaldi, who could be directly involved in designing of Teplov building and laying of park beside it. The peculiarity of Rinaldi work was the fact that the projected buildings he always tried to associate with the landscape. To further construction could be invited another italian architect George. Quarengi and already mentioned Cameron.

The official date of completion of construction of the palace is considered to be 1803, when customer of works – count Kyrylo Rozumovsky died. At the stage of rough work construction was suspended for an indefinite period. According to the testimony of dukeI. Dolgoruky emerizing works were completed in summer of 1810.

Thus, the first floor and ground floor of Rozumovsky Baturyn palace were built under the project of unknown architect in 1760’s, and the second and third floors overbuilt much later – in 1799 – 1803 under the project of Cameron. In general, in the history of construction of Rozumovsky palace are still many «blank spots», so the necessity of further research is evident.