Public employment services: history and contemporaneity

This article analyzed the origins and development of public employment services, as well as its main task in today’s environment. It is defined that the public service employment of Ukraine is in system of executive authorities also provides realization of a state policy in the sphere of employment and labor migration. The law of Ukraine «About population employment» are analysed and it defines legal, economic and organizational bases of realization state policy in the sphere of the population’s employment, a state guarantee on protection of the citizens’ rights on work and realization their rights for social protection from unemployment. The legal status of Public service of employment is defined, in particular its main objectives, rights, duties, powers and responsible officials. The questions of the public service employment’s work are studied in relationship with employers, labor unions and local governments in the sphere of regulation of processes on a market of work and assistance in employment and ensuring social protection of the jobless population. Should be noted that the Public service of employment is the single government institution in Ukraine which gives full range of services on providing with their work, and to employers  on providing with labour on the principles of social insurance.

One of the main problems of vital activity of society in the new economic conditions is the problem of employment and job creation. To solve the problem in Ukraine the State Employment Service of Ukraine was created.

Its countdown the history of the State Employment Service of Ukraine starts from October 1915, when in Kiev in order to solute urgent problem of providing companies with new workers instead mobilized to the front opened Labor Office.

In matters of unemployment policy of the new Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was based on the law of Soviet Russia about labor exchange on January 31, 1918. According to this exchanges moved into the jurisdiction of trade unions and were founded in the cities with a population of not less than 20 thousand.

Decree of the Central Executive Committee and the CPC on June 10, 1920 was approved Regulation about Allukrainian Committee for general labor (Ukrkomtrud).

In the early 30-ies of XX century was declared that socialism in the USSR won finally and irrevocably, it was announced about the elimination of unemployment in the country. In the Soviet Union in the period from 1930 to 1980 generally experienced relatively stable labor shortages. To monitor the process of redistribution of labor in 1943 was created Bureau of accounting and distribution of labor, which was later renamed the Bureau employment population.

Even during World War II in the public executive bodies of Ukrainian SSR began to operate labor reserves bodies. In February 1967 on the basis of liquidated Main Department of organizational set was created State Committee of Council of Ministers of Ukrainian SSR on use of human resources.

For ideological reasons the term «labor market» and «unemployment» to the end of the 1980s did not use. If we take the Soviet experience of recent decades when there was no mass forced labor, typical for the totalitarian period (farmers were allowed to have passports and seek employment outside of agriculture, and the number of employed prisoners reduced to a minimum), then it is possible to find items that are useful for today’s public policy.

First, the «right to work» was guaranteed by the Constitution of the USSR and the Labour Code. Secondly, regular, albeit under conditions of secrecy, the State Statistics Committee (CSO) developed reporting and USSR State Planning Committee – prognostic balances of labor resources from 1 to 5 years or more. One of the first market laws of our country – the Law of Ukraine «About Employment» was adopted in March 1991, six months before the new counting point of Ukrainian history.

On January 1, 2001 in Ukraine came into force extremely important Law for our state and the civil service of employment – «On compulsory state social insurance in case of unemployment». The Fund of compulsory state social insurance of Ukraine in case of unemployment was created; functions of Executive Directorate of the Fund assigned to public service of employment. Fund Management is carried out on a parity basis by the state, representatives of insured persons and employers.

Today in Ukraine on January 1, 2013 operates the Law «On Employment» (in the wording of July 5, 2012), which defines the legal, economic and organizational principles of state policy in the field of employment, state guarantees concerning protection of the rights of citizens to work and their rights to social protection against unemployment.

Decree of the President of Ukraine on January 16, 2013 on the basis of the State Employment Service established the State Employment Service, which operates today. The government passed a resolution providing for the establishment of 573 local Public Employment Service 27 major departments – Crimea, regions, Kyiv and Sevastopol; 546 offices – in districts, cities, districts in urban, intercity and interdistrict. Approved as limiting the number of employees – 15 th. 490 people.

Accepted Regulation of the State Employment Service of Ukraine approved by the Decree of the President of Ukraine on January 16, 2013 №19 / 2013. This regulation stipulates that the State Employment Service of Ukraine is part of the executive power and provides implementation of state policy in the field of employment and labor migration.

Over the years by the State Employment Service of Ukraine was established the system of social protection from unemployment insurance on the basis of, the social partnership system of human resources and skills development of employment services; developed and implemented modern information technology; created the material base for the provision of social services to the public and employers. Constantly improving the legal framework, expanding the forms and methods of information.

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