Today in Ukraine in terms of economic crisis, political and social instability raises the problem regarding the need of developing new forms of retention and education children who are in especially difficult and uncomfortable conditions. First of all it concerns orphaned children and children without parental care.
Learning the problems of placing these children proved that family education is priority form in Ukraine. So the purpose of the study is the definition of innovative methods of care of orphaned children and children without parental care.
In the last ten years in our country doubled the number of such children. Most of them arranged in residential institutions. Students of residential institutions are different from children raised in families by health, development of intelligence and personality in general.
Child in state institutions receives a set of educational, health, social services, but there are significant deviations in the process of socialization, which occur in the absence of skills independent living, inability to build their relationships in the family and in the team.
The role of the family for a child is very important. Parents give children life, responsible for care and education, take on the financial responsibility, have legal powers, including the right to make important decisions on behalf of children, help to feel warm and mutual love, convey the experience of generations, teach social skills and domestic.
Therefore, children should grow up in families with own parents, but when this is not possible, alternative to biological family can be another family. Family form of placements provide social protection, protection of property and housing rights of child, care, education, correction and compensation of development, solving of medical problems, overcoming psychological traumas, satisfaction of daily needs of child who was left without parental care, formation of his personality.
In Ukraine started work on the creation of institute of foster family since 1997. Staying of child in foster family not only financed by the state but also controls the maintenance and education of child, provides assistance in development, socialization, organizes social support of family and child.
The primary task of the state today – placing the fate of orphaned children and children without parental care. The first time they were really defended by national program «Children of Ukraine», and then – wave of events and other government programs aimed at solving the problems of child abandonment in Ukraine.
By the beginning of 90s in Ukraine there were only two forms of education of orphans and children without parental care: adoption and guardianship. Today added two more: foster families and children family type homes that are fundamentally different. Adopters – people who take in their family children who are not born by them, and they acquire status of their biological children. Foster family – a family that takes children on upbringing not giving them the status of biological and which is supported by the state such that performs a public function in relation to the child.
The latest data concerning realization of state program of reforming the system of care suggest growing interest in new forms of placement of children – orphans. The incentive for the development of this system – activation of the state program of financing foster families in 2006.
Experience of the European countries who have long been abandoned the boarding school system, proves that negative phenomena in the educational process of the younger generation can be prevented. It’s necessary to reinforce state support for families with children and invest funds in development, socialization of children who need special attention. Should promptly identify and prevent critical situations, provide to disadvantaged families comprehensive professional social assistance.
Priority directions of state policy is to establish alternative forms of care, legislative changes to state support of family care.
One of the priorities of implementation of social support from the first days of placement of child in the family should be protection of property and housing rights.
To create legal grounds for retaining of housing and property belonging to child much easier when biological parents, grandparents are alive, when dwelling is not sold, and it’s in a suitable condition for living and etc.
As practice shows the more time children are in foster care/children’s homes of family type, the more there questions, solution of which requires assistance from the executive bodies. So today need to be solved following problems: improving work with families whose children are in establishments of state retention in order to return them to the biological family – establishing a data bank of potential adoptive parents; improving the system of mutual selection of child and adoptive parents/caregiver parents, psychological training as foster as well as own children, with a focus on searching of families for children, but not vice versa etc.
Increasing tendency of transferring children in residential institutions, considered by many experts, is an indicator of crisis of morality and responsibility of society before its future.
Nowadays need for changes of existing system of guardianship and trusteeship over children in Ukraine is acknowledged by a wide range of experts and state. The evidence of this is the creation and development of adoptive family and family type homes, further improvement of network activities of social services for families, children and youth.