The struggle for Ukraine as stage of The World Revolution (based on the publications of the magazine «Communist», 1919)

The acticle deals with the the publications of the propagandist magazine «Communist», two numbers of whitch were published in Chernihiv in the autunm of 1919, when the government of the Soviet Ukraine was in the city. Among the personal touches of the contained publications it is certain prevailing in them of idea of world revolution, frankneglect to Ukrainian national liberation motion actual acquittal of consequences of red terror as to the means of intimidation and elimination of bourgeoisie. Also attention applies on illumination of materials of reasons of defeats of bolshevist army authors in Ukraine. On the whole working of the texts of the articles witnessed practical insolvency of bolshevist guidance of Ukraine to offer th new going nearpainful of that time problems. At an extremely heavy military situation it continued to push through goes world revolution, Ukraine  was examined foremost as territory of fight against «counter-revolution», place of arms for an offensive westward, and it population  as auxiliary or even expense material.

At the end of August in 1919 bodies of Soviet power were evacuated from Kyiv and came to Chernihiv, where delayed for about half months before they had to give up to Denikin forces. However, bolshevik leaders were not going to lose Ukraine. This is evidenced by publication in the magazine which was coming out in Chernihiv exactly at the residence time of higher bodies of KP(b)U and soviet power. The status of publication was defined as weekly addition to «News of the Council of workers and peasants defence of Ukraine», which was published by CC CP(b)U. The first issue was published on September 25, the second (and probably last) – October 1, 1919. Magazine came out in Russian.

In the announcement of editorship, placed in the first issue, emphasized that «Communist» – a body designed to run on the territory of Ukraine occupied by general Denikin. Publishers appealed with the request to send messages, reports, correspondence about the work of the bolshevik party in the occupied territories.

Starting with the appeal of editorship in the first issue, all materials were soaked with gloomy pathos of struggle against all, carefully listed enemies of Bolshevik forces: military dictatorship of german imperialism, white guard and hetman government», officer and kurkul (prosperous peasant) directory of Petliura-Vynnychenko» and, finally, generals and landlord folks of A. Denikin.

Moreover the last enemy was proclaimed the principal, and the idea of world revolution continued to dominate the theoretical postulates and ideological and political concepts of the russian bolshevik forces.

Ukrainian national liberation movement was openly neglected, and Ukraine in these materials was seen primarily as a territory, a place of struggle against Denikin forces and springboard for an attack on the West. Simon Petliura and so called Petliurists were intended to be synonyms of vile figure of kurkul or the concept of kurkulstvo.

But talking about the atrocities in Ukrainian cities allegedly committed by Denikin forces, authors declared about need of red terror as a means of intimidation and destruction of the bourgeoisie. On pages of magazine were placed messages of bolshevik loss, however obituaries of those killed bolshevik leaders were mostly insignificant. Often they do not even cited the name and age of the dead people.

However, on the pages of edition were publications, authors of which sought to find a way out of a very dangerous situation, at which they drove themselves, although this last was considered extremely reluctant. Among the causes of defeat of the Red Army in Ukraine authors called panic moods of soldiers, lack of command staff, «partyzanschyna» (guerrilla) and other specific conditions in Ukraine. As a way suggested combining of military forces with Soviet Russia. Thus leading role in the fight against numerous enemies directly assigned to the Russian communist party of bolshevik forces (RCP(b)). In the publications of magazine is shown that the party leaders had distrustful attitude towards Ukrainian peasantry, even though it was the driving force of all rebel groups in Ukraine. It was stressed on the necessity of taking actions, in order that the peasant movement don’t degenerated into «partyzanschyna» and gain the sympathy of middle peasant to worker-peasant government.

In general analysis of texts, partly frankly propagandistic, partly with a claim on the theoretical substantiation of measures aimed at overcoming of many enemies, confirming the practical inability of bolshevik leaders of Ukraine offer new approaches to urgent issues of that time. For extremely severe military situation, it is by no means departing from the idea of pushing to world revolution. Thus population of the territory, which turned into the arena of «decisive battle» between the world proletariat and world imperialism or «counter-revolution», was interpreted as supporting or even consumption material.

Such a guidance found its embodiment in the uncompromising hostility to the kulrkulstvo, which appears in every publication among the worst enemies of soviet power. Because the peasantry was completely indifferent to global plans of russian bolshevik forces and did not want to give their bread for free, then class hatred and the red terror spread on it. Imaginary or real kurkulstvo equated to most fierce opponents of the new system. Defeat of ukrainian military and political forces in the fight for Kyiv was successfully used to discredit UNR, lowering its guidance to the level of «bandits». However, the resistance of the peasantry – though poorly organized, but massive insurgent movement – forced V. Lenin to change for better attitude towards Ukraine as a whole and towards its peasantry in particular.