Some features of construction of K. Rozumovskyi’s palace and park complex in Baturyn

The article researches the history of the building of K.Rozumovskyi’s palace and park complex in Baturyn. Stages and features of its construction are revealed. An idea is grounded, that it beginning is on 1760th, when the teacher of К. Rozumovskyi G. Teplov began to build a nown house in Baturyn, and also pawned a park on the earth presented to him by a hetman. Information is analysed from documentary sources about a location and internal planning of house o G.Teplov, versions are examined inrelation to authorship of primary project of estate. It could belong to a few architects among them is the Italian architect А. Rinaldi. Further development of court-style-park complex lasted already in 1790th after a return these earth by К. Rozumovskyi and at participation of the English architect Ch. Kameron. An author the results of numerous researches of architectural features of palace and his finishing, on the basis of that drawn conclusion, are illuminated, that Ch. Kameron did the already existent one-story house of G. Teplov, where upon there was realizable building on of the second and third floors.

The article explained the history of construction of palace and park complex of last hetman of Left-bank Ukraine Kyrylo Rozumovsky in Baturyn. As you know, his palace was built in 1799 – 1803 designed by Scottish architect Charles Cameron. However unexplored is the fact that before him in this building were at least two founders, and its construction started in 1760’s. For forty years of its existence, changing owners, it could undergo significant architectural changes, until received its final appearance in 1803.

Establishment of palace and park complex is associated with the name of teacher and mentor Rozumovsky Gregory Teplov, to whom hetman in 1760 by his decree presented lands in Baturin. Soon Teplov greatly expanded his ownership by purchasing neighboring lands. In these territories in 1760 – 1764 was founded park and construction started. After abolition of the hetmanate in 1764 Teplov returned to Baturyn estate which remained in his possession until 1772 and kept in good condition. 12 years after donation of Baturyn lands K. Rozumovsky bought it out from Teplov for 10 thousand rubles. At the time in the estate was park, two wings, a home for workers and unfinished house of owner.

In 1794 Rozumovsky finally settled in Baturyn, devoted himself to building of estate to the end of life. Herewith some restructuring he may carry out along previous two decades, replaning house with the participation of famous architects of the time. Therefore it is likely that as of 1790, it was one-storeyed, not including basements and attics. Maybe that year Rozumovsky planned usual redevelopment of Teplov building by inviting Cameron for this.

It is unknown how events developed, but the architect came to Baturyn only in 1799 In general architect was not a supporter of rapid projecting, however the project completed in a short time.

Regarding the construction of the palace there are following version. Many researchers, based on plans and results of inspection of the palace substructure, were inclined to the fact that Cameron rebuilt Teplov house. By definition of architect M.G. Terziev, Cameron used the existing substructure and walls, including them to the basement of new building. This version also confirmed a number of significant differences in planning structure of the basement and upper floors, which were seen as on the drawings and during the inspection of brickwork of the basement and upper floors of buildings. At a time when superstructure over Teplov building was carried out, first floor and ground floor were suitable for habitation.

Baturyn palace is a unique architectural monument, because it is the only example in Ukraine of «cubic» centric composition of palace. Another feature of this structure is that the roof was made of separate thick zinced sheets of iron. Between the stone blocks of columns, for strength, lead fitting was laid. For the decoration of the palace was used marble limestone. The walls of the first floor, which was like a pedestal for the entire building, built of unhewn stone (rusticated). The main facade is decorated with eight column ionic portico on the arcade. Garden facade has an outdoor terrace that is based on the colonnade of tuscan order.

For researchers such a combination of «hard archaic bottom with slight colonnade of portico with ionic heads of columns» seemed surprising and appeared questions about who began to build this palace. One of these is considered an italian architect Antonio Rinaldi, who could be directly involved in designing of Teplov building and laying of park beside it. The peculiarity of Rinaldi work was the fact that the projected buildings he always tried to associate with the landscape. To further construction could be invited another italian architect George. Quarengi and already mentioned Cameron.

The official date of completion of construction of the palace is considered to be 1803, when customer of works – count Kyrylo Rozumovsky died. At the stage of rough work construction was suspended for an indefinite period. According to the testimony of dukeI. Dolgoruky emerizing works were completed in summer of 1810.

Thus, the first floor and ground floor of Rozumovsky Baturyn palace were built under the project of unknown architect in 1760’s, and the second and third floors overbuilt much later – in 1799 – 1803 under the project of Cameron. In general, in the history of construction of Rozumovsky palace are still many «blank spots», so the necessity of further research is evident.