Forming ecoming of territory of the Chernihiv regiment in the second half of the XVIIth century

In the article the stages of forming of territory of the Chernihiv regiment are examined in the second half of XVIIth century. Author pays attention to conditional enough, unsteady character of  it borders on the initial stage of existence that was caused by stormy political, military and administrative changes. Also  the  fragmentaryness of data registers in sources in relation to the amount of hundreds of the Chernihiv regiment and them permanent transition in the complement of nearby regiments in accordance with the tasks of top management. An author establishes artificial character of configuration of the Chernihiv regiment after Zboriv anagreement in 1649, in the lists of that considerable hundreed’s centers are absent round Chernihiv. According to his opinion, it was predefined by one of agreements of Zboriv of agreement on reduction of cossack register to 40 thousands persons. The further forming of territory of regiment came true in 1654 – 1672 and was related with change of orientation of foreign policy of hetmans toward the Moscow state. Beginning from 1672 the Chernihiv regiment unchanging consisted of 16 hundreds that notedly differed inter se after the sizes of territory and amount of settlements.

Chernihiv regiment started to be formed soon after the national liberation revolution in the summer of 1648. On the territory of Left Bank Ukraine acted Cossacks detachments led by leaders – companions of B. Khmelnitsky – M. Nebaba, P. Holovatsky, M. Gladky, who released the territory of Chernihivschina from Polish gentry.

Regiment which were created in the liberated territories, were both military and administrative units of a young Ukrainian Cossack state. Chernihiv regiment, the first mention of which related to July 1648, formed on the basis of Chernihiv district of Chernihiv province (first of all Chernihiv starostvo, Horodnya, Sedniv, Slabyn districts) and Lyubech starostvo, occupying territory on the river Desna, Snov and Seim.

Frontiers of Chernihiv regiment did not stabilize immediately, due to instability of traditions of cossack governance, rapid nature of military and administrative and territorial changes during the first years of a National liberation revolution. On the eastern borders of Chernihiv regiment in 1648 – 1649 there were separate Borzna and Sosnytsia regiments, some hundreds of Chernihiv and Nizhyn regiments moved from one regiment to another –according to the military situation and strategic tasks set by the government.

Study of these processes turned out to be quite difficult due to the lack of sources. Obviously, at the first time to the complement of Chernihiv regiment included Chernihiv regimental, Sedniv, Slabyn and Lyubech hundreds (or Loyiv, mention of which belong to summer in 1649, although according to some data source in 1648 – 1649 Loyiv hundred was part of Bragyn or Rechytsa regiment or separate Loyiv regiment). There is also information about the existence of Stolne, Roysche and Mena hundreds in the first period of the Liberation War. In view of the dynamic and unstable political-military situation that required a prompt response and clear control of military units, this practice could easily take place.

More substantial reorganization of Cossack regiments took place after the Treaty of Zboriv in 1649. It had a hasty nature, which is evident in the case of Chernihivschina. Of course, Zboriv peace in 1649 had to limit cossack freedom, «press» the rapid rebel sea in a 40-thousand register, some reform was inevitable.

However, performed reorganization was seemingly too artificial. So, as part of Chernihiv regiment named seven hundreds: Chernihiv regimental, Borzna, Bakhmach, Baturin, Konotop, Sosnytsia, Ivanhorod. On the one hand, this is the first known list of hundreds of regiment, on the other – it’s prematurely to make any serious conclusions on their basis. In the register in 1649 there is no reference about hundreds to the west or north from Chernihiv, except Regimental where there were once 400 cossacks. So the origins of such hundreds as Roysche, Lyubech, Bilous and Slabyn, Sedniv, Gorodnya, you need to look at hundreds of Regimental, whether is too large territory even for hundred in 400 cossacks?

Therefore, we can state the full inconsistency of list of hundreds on the roster in 1649 with the real situation of the first two years of the war, which once again testifies the convention of the Treaty of Zboriv, which was not perceived by cossacks as a long-term agreement. Moreover, outlined in the registry list of hundreds, probably never existed in practice, because cossacks centers presented above continue to operate. The same logic of events contradicts the Zboriv register. In view of the constant activity of the cossacks in Loyiv and Gomel destinations in the early years of the war, it would be foolish to put it all on one single regimental hundred.

In the usual form the territory of Chernihiv regiment was formed in 1654 – 1672, that was associated with the processes of reorientation of foreign policy of number of cossack hetman (first of all I. Briukhovetsky, D. Mnohohrishny, I. Samoilovych) toward the Russian kingdom and caused some reformatting of regiments of Left Bank Ukraine. So during 1672 – 1782 Chernigiv regiment invariably consisted of 16-hundreds: Berezna, Bilous, Vybli, Volynka, Gorodnya, Kyselivka, Lyubech, Mensa, Ponornytsia, Roysche, Sedniv, Syniavka, Slabyn, Sosnytsia, Stolne and Chernigiv regimental, which significantly differed in territorial size and number of inhabited localities.